Friday, May 22, 2020

Method Of Valuation Of Environmental Externalities Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4257 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Introduction The hole in the layer of ozone above the Antarctic, the birds oiled following the shipwreck of a tanker such EXXON VALDEZ or the ERIKA and very recently lately the escape of the oil platform of BP to broad of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the mine with open sky of Thedford Mines which emits asbestos dust in the atmosphere have a whole a common point: environmental externalities released by each situation. Indeed, each fact enumerated above has an negative impact on the environment or on the health of the individuals resulting from an activity of a company or a person which is not held responsible in spite of its responsibility for their generation such is in oneself, moreover, the definition of the term environmental externality. However, an externality is not obligatorily negative and can be, consequently, positive like showed it very well James Meade (1952), through its famous example of the bee-keeper and the nurseryman. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Method Of Valuation Of Environmental Externalities Finance Essay" essay for you Create order A externality is often the resultant of a fact that we can see or not to in the case of see an atmospheric pollution and whose monetary quantification is not easily realizable. Moreover, questions remain on the cogency of their quantification like on the way and the accuracy in their evaluation points out Antheaume (2004). Indeed, how can we consider the money value of a bird oiled, or the impact on public health following the atmospheric pollution rejected by a company? Moreover and a general way, the importance of the environment has been in increasing demand for more than two decades. Indeed, a real awakening on behalf of recipients (community, customers, shareholders, the State, etc.) request to find solutions with the growing number of environmental catastrophes or pollution various within the framework of the exploitation of the companies. Indeed, the companies have a central role to play in the action towards a better natural stock management of planet. In fact, even if the original intention of a company is to maximize its profits, this one must above all hold for account that each activity generated by the organization with an impact on the company and the environment in terms of environmental externality. However, if these impacts are not quantified, those are likely not to be taken as a real concern. Indeed, to affix a cost on an externality makes it possible to better become aware of its reality, to encourage their management while reducing his costs and thus directly its environmental impact. It will be the role of the accountancy of management, and thus of the accountant, to allow the monetary quantification of the environmental externalities. However, the various fields of expertise (economic, sociological and psychological) on the quantitative tools having to be employed in their quantification do not facilitate the task of the experts and often imply a joint collaboration between the engineers, ecologists, sociologists, etc. Moreove r, it is Pigoul  [1]  which, in 1920, brought for the first time the concept of externality, model rising directly from an economic theory. Moreover, it is well-known that one can manage only what one measures. It is besides with this long-winded speech that even comes the gasoline to have to quantify what appears unquantifiable such as the environmental externalities and that, in order to better be able to manage them. Even if the management of the external costs remains an important point in the need for their quantification, it is especially their internalization in the financial statements which will be seen facilitated. Indeed, the current countable standards do not accept the qualitative data yet from where the need for their monetary evaluation. However of many methods exist ultimate to this end. Consequently, this literature review wants to be a synthesis of the various existing methods in order to draw some the conclusions being able to be useful within the compan ies wanting to quantify the externalities and that in the attack of their objectives. Valuation and integration of Environmental externalities Let us recall first of all that the integration of the environmental external cost within the management system of the costs of the companies is not made compulsory yet. This integration is by optional definition, it is however recommended by many authors based on the principles of increase in the competitive regulation and advantage. However, as point out it Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005) like Epstein, Roy Schroeder and Winter  [2]  , the quantification of the externalities is only at its beginning. Thus, for the organizations choosing this integration, there exist today three great types of methods make it possible to evaluate the externalities cost: based on the control costs, the restoration cost, or the damage cost. Control cost The method evaluation of the external costs as regards to the control cost or avoidance cost is one of simplest. Indeed, the principle is that the cost of the environmental impacts (pollution in particular) of a company would be equal to the cost to install, to operate and of maintenance of technologies which would have made it possible to avoid this damage with the environment (IFAC 2005, Epstein and Roy  [3]  ). Moreover, Antheaume (2004) note which this method reasons in terms of marginal cost, i.e the cost of an additional unit of damage is estimated by the cost that it would have been necessary to spend to avoid it. Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005) support as it acts of the cost which the company would have really undergone to see will have to undergo one day if the regulation obliges it to reduce its damage. Thus, a possibility to obtain these costs, advanced by the IFAC (2005), is to refer at the cost supported by enterprises of countries where the regulation is more advanced. Consequently, Bà ¶er, Curtin and Hoyt (1998) raise that this method is frequently used as reference to choose between two investments related to the environment for example. This cost of control would be obtained also easily by the studies of the engineers or the companies of environment consultants. It is discussed as less as of other methods evaluation of the external costs according to Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005), and Greene  [4]  . However, Antheaume (2004) raises several limits. Indeed, according to him, the main issue of this method is that it does not estimate really the cost of the damage for the environment, but a theoretical cost for the company. Consequently, an important variation can occur between the methods of estimate of the damage cost and this method. Moreover, Antheaume (2004) and the US EPA  [5]  point out that there always does not exist of technologies to avoid certain pollution and thus not cost of control associated with these pollutants, or these technologies are not developed enough to estimate the cost of it. Cost of restoration According to the IFAC (2005) it is also possible to estimate the externalities by the cost not of avoidance of the damage, nor of the damage itself, but by the cost of restoration, or treatment of the caused damage. Thus, for example, when Exxon Valdez with struck a reef in 1989, the 11 million released gallons of oil generated more than 1, 25 billion dollar restoration  [6]  . In the same way, in 1988, US Environmental Protection Agency had estimated the cost of handing-over in a state of 27,000 Superfund or National Priority List (NPE) industrial sites to be cleaned in priority to approximately 25 million dollars by site  [7]  . Burritt and Gibson (1993)  [8]  thus identified three types of costs of restoration: direct, indirect costs and of repercussions. The direct costs are costs supported by the company such as the costs of repair of the boat, of cleaning, the legal fines and penalties in the case of Exxon Valdez. The indirect costs and the costs of repercussions are external costs, i.e generated, but not supported by the company. Thus, the indirect costs are those supported by the company to clean the coasts or for example the loss of income of the fishermen and tourism industry. The costs of repercussions are those undergone by the other companies of the sector such as the increase in the premiums of insurance and the loss of reputation. In order to estimate the cost of the externalities according to this method, only the indirect costs and of repercussions must be considered. The direct costs are indeed already undergone and thus recorded by the company. The major limit of this method according to Zachry, Graharan and Chaisson (1998), is the lack and the difficulty in obtaining relative data at the cost undergone by the company and the other companies of the sector. The applicability of this method thus appears very limited. Damage cost The last type of method evaluation monetary of the externalities is the damage cost. Indeed, these methods aim at estimating in scientific manner or economic the cost of the damage caused with the environment, itself (IFAC, 2005). Several subcategories of methods are used: method of the contract price, the hedonic scale, the costs of the voyage, conditional evaluation. Method of the market price Matthews and Lave (2000) and Reich (2005) advise to evaluate the externalities by their market valuet. Indeed, they notice that it is particularly difficult to determine their value in the absence of a market. Thus, they recommend to search for similar goods on markets the most similar as possible. Ardestani and Shafie-For (2007) are, with this method, evaluated the damage carried out by air pollutions of the energetic sector in Iran. Another example would be the price difference between two houses perfectly identical, in perfectly identical grounds except for pollution. The difference of price sale of these two houses (and all the other houses of the ground) would constitute, according to this method, the estimate of the cost of the damage related to pollution. However, this method seems very little used, certainly due to the fact that the majority of the environmental credits are public goods, i.e the possessions for which the property rights are not dà ©finis  [9]  and thus for which it there generally no market. Method of the hedonic scale The hedonic price method is a technique of evaluation which calculates a value for the environmental quality from differences such as in rents or prices of the real goods by example  [10]  . Thus, if we take again the example of our two houses (see Method of the market price), here it would not act more than two identical houses out of two identical grounds, but, on the contrary, of two houses with different characteristics and different grounds, always one polluted, the other not. Thus, work here would mainly consist in determining which is the importance of environmental pollution in the choice of the houses by the population. The given proportion multiplied by the price difference between the two houses equalizes the estimate of the cost of pollution. It should be noted that the comparison between two goods is not necessary; the proportion can also be applied directly to the price of house. As Harscouà «t (2007) notices it, this method is particularly adapted to the real es tate and work sectors. However, according to Khalifa (2002)  [11]  , the statistics and econometrics and thus a solid database are necessary to determine the sum which the individuals are ready to pay to improve the environmental quality or to decrease the risks of their work. Travel Cost Method (TCM) Harscouà «t (2007) underlines that this method is used mainly for the natural sites and/or areas. The subjacent assumption is that the individuals are ready to travel to visit natural parks for example. Thus, the minimal value of the withdrawn advantages of the site would be equal to the cost of voyage to the park, and of entrance fee (Bougherara, 2003  [12]  ). The use of the variation of the travels costs between a polluted place and another not polluted can also be used as estimate according to this method. However, apart from the sites, the use of this method appears very complex. Conditional evaluation The method the conditional evaluation or contingent (Contingent Valuation Method, (CVM)), popularized since the beginning of the years 1980s, is a technique of evaluation of the externalities, where one asks directly the population concerned, which sum they are ready to pay/accept for an improvement or a deterioration of the quality of the environment  [13]  . It is based on the method of the preference declared, expressed by the people concerned (Harscouà «t, 2007). Thus, there exist two principal methods, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) when one asks for the price which the people are ready to pay, and Willingness-To-Avoid (WTA) when one asks the price allowing to accept a degradation of their environment or for the price which the people are ready to pay in order to not undergo more degradation. This last method (WTA) is regarded by Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) as being a method of equivalent variation, because it measures the variation of income (price ready to pay or receive) al lowing an equivalence in their wellbeing between a situation with and without pollution. It is important to note according to Antheaume (2004) and Matthews and Lave (2000) that the WTP and the WTA are incremental methods, i.e. seeking to give a monetary amount at the impact of a marginal change of the environmental quality for the people. Thus, for example, Matthews and Lave (2000) sought to give a monetary amount the value which the people are ready to pay to avoid an environmental pollution increasing the risk of death by 1 per 1000, i.e a marginal degradation. Consequently, these two methods of conditional evaluation give an indication of the mobilizable resources, to prevent or repair damage for example, and also of the sensitizing of the opinion to the quality of the environment  [14]  . The assumption is that the sum of the assents to be paid/accept (often average or median) expressed to prevent or repair an environmental damage is equal to the value of the damage on the environment. It is it should be noted that it must sometimes be carried out an analytical regression in order to determine the share of the environment in the WTP or WTA, other criteria being able to enter in account as the case of the hedonic price method according to Grosclaude and Soguel (2004). Antheaume (2004) proposes to apply after a percentage equal to the proportion of company responsibilities in this pollution in order to obtain the external cost generated by this one. Several ways of applying these methods exist, even if all crosses by a survey. Indeed, according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) the principle of the contingent evaluation is to confront the individuals with a hypothetical market (contingent) on which environmental goods (e.g the appearance of historical buildings) are bought and sold. The interviewed people see themselves asking to indicate their preference for the good exchanged according to the bidding principle. Thus, these same authors identify thr ee means of asking for their preference: To propose an initial amount, then to increase or decrease the value suggested according to the response (iterative process) until obtaining an acceptance (and/or a refusal) or while limiting themselves to two questions. This last approach, resulting from Herriges and Shogren (1996)  [15]  , is called double bounded dichotomous choice. A trichotmous approach also exists, adding the possibility of saying if they would have accepted at a stronger or weak price with the approach of the double dichotomous choice (Loomis and Al, 1999  [16]  ). To let the person choose her own starting value then to propose lower values until to him he refuses the value suggested. However, according to Zhongmin and Al (2006) this first opened question often brings an absence of answer. This phenomenon is explained according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) by the lack of practice of the people with regard to the monetary evaluation of the quality of th eir environment. From where a bias of failure of non-answer of the surveys of the type WTP from 20 to 30%, to compare with the 5 to 7% traditional surveys according to Craig and McCann (1978)  [17]  . To regard the answering as a price taker, i.e to make him that only one price quotation which it accepts if its WTP (or WTA) is weaker or equal, and refuses if it is higher. This approach, developed by Bishop and Heberlein (1979)  [18]  thus leaves a dichotomous choice. Zhongmin and Al (2006) note that the suggested price can vary according to the answering. A fourth way of leading the people to reveal their preferences was developed by Mitchell and Carson (1989)  [19]  and bears the name of payment card. This one consists of the original proposal of multiple intervals of values including zero, the objective being that the answering can surround the value corresponding to him without being influenced by a particular value of reference. All these approaches search t o answer one of the main issues of the method evaluation contingent, i.e., according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994), to manage to make express their preference by the people. Indeed, the skill even of the people to give precise, relevant and honest answers to this type of survey was questioned, and, in spite of several studies indicating a certain degree of validity of the answers (Matthews and Lave, 2000), any induced survey of behavioral skews. Principal skew, according to Zhongmin and Al (2006) is the skew of the yea, i.e. the tendency of the answering to say yes when them a question is asked. This skew would be particularly present when the answering are not accustomed to seeing themselves asking for their opinion (on the policies, etc.) (Matthews and Lave, 2000), and/or that the governments generally give the socially acceptable standard (all confused fields). Thus, for example, in its case study seeking to obtain the WTP to restore the site of Ejina in China, the authors h ad to use several methods in order to try to reveal truths WTP of the people. Following this study, Zhongmin and Al (2006) concluded that the approach of the payment card is that limiting a maximum skew of yea. Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) consider as for them that principal skew, of failure to reply or distorted answering, is related to the lack of information had by the answering to enable him to make a coherent choice by itself. Thus, they recommend, like Zhongmin and Al (2006) and Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes, Williams (2000), to devote part of the questionnaire to the setting in context and explanation of the environmental situation and its implications. Finally, the people would be generally perfectly able to answer this type of survey (Grosclaude and Soguel 1994, Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes, Williams 2000) even whereas it is about a hypothetical market for incremental modifications of public goods such as related to the environment. However, certain people are indifferent towards the surveys of conditional evaluation and they are increasingly numerous when the effects of the environment seem distant and total according to the principle of Not In My Back Yard  [20]  . Thus, Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) recommend to take into account only the answers of the receptive people (including if their WTP/A is null) and according to a representative sample of the local population. These problems are typical of this type of methods, resting on a survey and thus depending on the behavior of the questioned people even on people questioning. Thus, Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes and Williams (2000) come from there to think that measurement resulting from the conditional evaluation will be accepted only if it is close to the awaited values. However, it would seem that important variations can be obtained between two surveys of WTP. Indeed, the US EPA (1997)  [21]  used 5 surveys of conditional evaluation to measure the value attached to the risk to die prematurely becaus e by flight pollution. The results showed a median of 4,8 million dollars, but with a standard deviation of 3,2 million, i.e. almost 67%. Typology We reviewed the three various groups of methods monetary evaluation of the externalities: the cost of control, restoration or the damage cost itself. This classification is that of the IFAC (2005), but we can note several differences with that employed by certain authors. Thus, an important typological point should be noted concerning Willingness- To-Pay. Indeed, this name of method is used within two different frameworks: 1) for the contingent evaluation, i.e expressed preferences and 2) for the methods of market price, and the hedonic price, i.e preference observed (on a market). This last use is explained by the fact why the assent to be paid is usually (in economy) revealed by prices: more the price of a good is high, more it means (partly) that the people are ready to pay expensive for this one. Thus, certain authors such Harscouà «t (2007), GIEC  [22]  , OCDE  [23]  , use the term of WTP within the framework of evaluation methods of the externalities in economic m atter, i.e for the methods of market price, hedonic price and travel cost. It results from this a more general problem from classification of the various methods. Indeed, consequently, Harscouà «t (2007), Khalifa (2002) and Bougherara (2004) make following classification: Classification of the methods evaluation of the external costs Source: Harscouà «t, 2007, adapted of Khalifa (2002) and Bougherara (2004) And, in the same way, Antheaume (2004) does not classify the conditional evaluation within the methods measuring the cost of the damage, but in fact also a category with share. Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005), the IFAC (2005), the Commission of the State of Massachussets  [24]  advise to rather use the method of the cost of control (or restoration according to the IFAC 2005) than that of the contingent evaluation, because they are discussed. Indeed, the methods of costs of control or restoration are based on costs which the company could, even would have, really to undergo and thus less variables. Moreover, the WTP and the WTA are considered very difficult to apply by the companies because of complexity of the surveys to realize and skews to be avoided. However, as Herborn (2005) could note it at the time of its case study, more the method is complex, less its result is accepted. Nevertheless, Harscouà «t (2007) and Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) consider that, in spite of its complexity, the method of contingent evaluation is to be privileged, because it reflects the individual preferences. In addition, Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) notice that it is the only one possible method when it is impossible to observe the preferences of the people on a market and that one wants to consider the damage cost to the environment. However, the control cost methods and restoration are methods, because they take the real hypothetical costs, fail to measure the cost of the environmental impacts. However, as Herborn (2005) also could notice it, one of the principal wills of the companies launching out in the monetary evaluation of the externalities is to reflect the importance of the environment in itself, e.g. of the biodiversity. Thus, in spite of the use of the contingent evaluation, the managers and shareholders are constrained to reduce the environment to a money value, because the environment represents more than of the money. Consequently, if the contingent evaluation, considering the values however that the people allot to the environment, is called in question for its reduction at the monetary terms, then in this case, the use of the methods of control cost and restoration does not appear possible. Indeed, there exists a significant difference between these last methods and those methods of damage costs (of which the conditional evaluation is most known). According to the case study realized by Antheaume (2004) this variation would vary the external costs by a factor from 1 to 12000 according to the method evaluation selected and of the impacts taken into account. Moreover, this variation can be considered as a subsidy of the society to the companies, because it represents the amount of damage which the society allows the companies to create without them having to support them one day. Whatever the method chosen, let us not f orget that the evaluation of external cost is thus shown feasible, with more or less large scales. Conclusion Refaire la conclusion As an accountant of management, our role is above all to provide information to the company. With regard to the environment, the most complete information is obtained when the environmental costs are identified, measured and allocated with the products or processes having generated them. ok To be done, several methods can combine. As we saw, the LCA, and the LCC makes it possible to arrive at our objective. However, in these methods based on the life cycle, certain costs (contingent, intangible) are with difficulty liables with a phase of the cycle, and thus often forgotten according to Norris, 2001. Thus, another solution is that of the complete cost in the form of the Total Cost Assessment, considering all the types of costs. However, the costs are not allocated with the products from this methods, from where interest of accountancy by activity (ABC) or of Full Cost Accounting. Thus, the FCA, the TCA and the ABC belonged to most frequently used by the companies interviewed by Parker (2000). Nevertheless, the FCA and the TCA imply also the accounting of the external costs. It becomes thus either optional, but necessary to choose a method evaluation monetary of the externalities. Among these last, the method of the cost of control (of prevention) and the conditional evaluation are most usually used. Nevertheless, the method of the cost of control is limited at a theoretical cost for the company, rather easily calculable, but not reflecting the damage really undergone by the environment and thus the company. Contrary, the conditional evaluation is based on the preferences and values of the individuals with respect to the environment. But, its great subjectivity and the methodological problems (choice of the approaches, skew) generate a controversy on the results obtained. Thus, the other methods measuring the cost of the damage (methods of the contract price, the price hedonic, the cost of voyage) seem to be to privilege when the y are applicable.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

A Guide to Book Report

A Guide to Book Report The series is also called the Moon Crash trilogy. Who are t the principal characters. You might analyze the characters or themes of the job. There are a couple methods you may track your book sales. Rather, it's an opportunity to talk about some themes that stuck with me while reading a specific book. Kids in high school ought to be mature enough writers to generate book reviews rather than filling out book reports. On occasion, the theme is really obvious. If you eat healthy, your stress levels will be decreased hence you're going to be in a place to concentrate on any task which you would like to perform. In reality, based on where you're starting from, it may be much sooner than that. Or to put it differently, you can't not see something in your field of vision. You ought to be able to handle most discipline problems all on your own. A customized book report calls for a suitable analysis after its complete study. Finish reading the book before you start your report. Instead you would like your report to encourage individuals to read the book. Before you start to read, consider what kinds of things you need to compose your book report. Book Report is the solution. To begin with, you should make certain you understand correctly what is expected of you. The Argument About Book Report Your site traffic another major indicator of how well your author company is doing. In addition, it would be best to keep adding valuable content to your website or sites on a normal basis. Compared with your site traffic, you're going to be in a position to see which lead magnets are converting the very best and which you might have to scrap. The students are certain to get a work of a great quality, with low-cost rates. What's Truly Going on with Book Report Like sadness you'll be leaving your workmates behind. You ought to learn about the disorder to be in a position to aid your mother or father. Neither you nor your child deserve having to experience the unneeded stress of needing to sort through all the material which has been collected throughout the year. There are separate questionnaires that are beneficial in writing a novel and biography file, history book file, science book report and a lot more. Every book reviewer requires a sample book report to experience the guidelines about how to compose a report on any genre of book in the right format. A minumum of one author has to be designated with an asterisk as the individual to whom correspondence ought to be addressed. No more inclusion in the references is necessary. Math should never be taught in only one way, but with various methods. Students should work a bit to find some creativity in their own statements. Most students might have to compose a book report. Vital Pieces of Book Report In the end, it's not journalist's role, and it's not the objective of activists or politicians, to present the world as it is really. Your son or daughter can pretend classmates are potential employees in a bookstore, and speak with them about getting folks to purchase the book. He or she can film a short video clip or movie trailer based on the bo ok. Alternatively, if he or she is feeling ambitious, she can produce a whole newspaper based on the characters' world. The use of the funding body in the plan of the analysis and collection, analysis, and interpretation of information and in writing the manuscript needs to be declared. Naturally, you shouldn't view your portfolio review for a time for you to be judged or ridiculed. When it's an ordinary yearly report form of a most frequent type of. Or, as an alternative, you may make a last evaluation of the book it is based on the task you were given.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode Free Essays

Biblical scholarship and the gospels can be useful examples for Kermode because these provide scholarly quality and discipline of the best biblical study and can set a high enough standard that can be exemplary to all. An indispensable instrument of survival in this world is the power to make interpretations. According to Kermode, in all the works of interpretation, there are insiders and outsiders, the former having or professing to have, immediate access to the mystery, the latter randomly scattered across space and time and excluded from the elect who mistrust or despise their unauthorized divinations, which may indeed, for all the delight they give, without absolute value. We will write a custom essay sample on The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode or any similar topic only for you Order Now From my understanding, he deems this important since much of what is written is susceptible to many interpretations. Thus the power to make interpretations has been dubbed by the author as an indispensable instrument of survival. Hermes is the patron of thieves, merchants and travelers, of heralds and their kerygma. He has been described as cunning and occasionally violent. He is also the patron of interpreters and since Kermode is an interpreter himself, Hermes is important in his profession. Hermes is, after all, considered as the god of going between –between the dead and the living, between the latent and the manifest. Hermeneutics is thus described as the rules of the art of interpretation and its philosophy. It has been thought by some as the most serious of philosophical inquiry; as a means whereby they effect a necessary subversion of the old metaphysics. It covers a range of activity from plain proclamation of sense to oracular intimations. The biblical passage quoted by the author is from the Gospel of Mark (4:11-12) to wit: Jesus said, â€Å"To you has been given the secret of God, but for those outside everything is in parables; so that they may indeed see but no perceive, and may indeed hear but no understand; lest they should turn again, and be forgiven.† This passage was included by the author because he needed to point out that a written work is susceptible to various interpretations. He wanted to point out that it is only those who already know the mysteries – what the stories really mean – can discover what the stories really mean. Carnal reading is that which is based on simple primary senses. These are readers who try to take the literary piece in their literal concept. In the story of Party going, the author wanted to stress the need to rely more on spiritual reading rather than carnal reading. He wanted to emphasize that we need to perceive and understand the story before us to achieve full comprehension. Hina was used by Mark to refer to â€Å"so that† while hoti was used by Matthew as â€Å"because†. The change by Matthew involved a different grammar where Matthew replaces Marks’ subjective into an indicative. The parable of the Good Samaritan has been interpreted in many ways –the most common of which is to showcase who or what a real neighbor is. And by the standards of the parable, it is that person who helps those in need. It was also referred to the fall of man whereby Adam is the traveler who has decided to leave Paradise and the Good Samaritan is Christ who saved him. Narratives are obscure because it allows us to interpret these in a manner we see fit. The parables are a perfect example in the sense that they allow us to learn something based on our own understanding or perception of a story vis-à  -vis the real interpretation of the text. How to cite The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Steroids Essay Example

Steroids Essay There is a huge national concern over the misuse and abuse of anabolic steroids for enhancement of muscular stature and performance among competitive athletes.   Latest estimates have shown that approximately 5% of all high school students have used anabolic steroids, with almost half of the high students believing that these drugs are not harmful to their health.   Drug enforcement legislations have included anabolic steroids in its list of traffic-controlled substances (21 USC Sec. 801 1/22/02; Schedule III).   However, the bigger picture of the medical and research benefits of anabolic drugs have been overlooked due to the sensationalize media coverage of these drugs.   Current scientific researches are still inconclusive on whether anabolic steroids are extremely unsafe for administration, opposite to what has been actively claimed by anti-drug officials and government authorities.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 (ASCA) was established to regulate the distribution of anabolic steroids in the United States.   The Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of Justice has been mandated to implement measures to protect the people from these dangerous drugs.   A four-part definition of anabolic steroids serves as a blueprint to identify any analogues of the chemical substance that may be uncontrollably dispensed to athletes and other youths.   The definition included substances that are chemically and pharmacologically similar to testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, as well as a very close likeness in its enhancement for muscle growth.   The Act classified anabolic steroids in the same category as barbiturates and LSD precursors and claim that these substances result in dangerous effects to the human body.   The Act declares that any individual caught in the possession of these anabolic steroids will be arrested and prosecuted.   The list of anabolic steroids in the Act is continuously being updated, as new versions of th ese drugs are progressively being created through the years.Anabolic androgenic steroids are testosterone derivatives that are mainly used for muscle and performance enhancement.   These drugs are frequently used by competitive athletes in order to achieve an edge or better control of their physical strength and performance during professional sports games.   Retrospective surveys indicated that anabolic steroids have been used since the 1960s to date (Duchaine, 1983), with current national user rates ranging from 3% to 9% among high school students alone.   The exact effect of anabolic steroids in the developing human body has not been fully studied, and the increase in number of reports of teenage athletes committing suicide has called the attention of the legislation to assess and review drug enforcement laws covering this specific drug.It has been reported that the prolonged use of anabolic steroids have may cause a number of adverse effects to the human body, including li ver damage, gynecomastia, atherogenesis, psychiatric disorders such as aggression and violence, and even death (Balbigian, 2001; Brower, 2002; Glazer, 1991; Pope and Katz, 1990; Malone et al. 1995).   Investigations on the nationwide use of anabolic steroids have prompted Congress to establish the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990, which mainly indicates that the non-medical employment of anabolic steroids is punishable by law.   Any violations will be penalized by at least 15 days to 5 years imprisonment and/or $1,000 to $1,000,000 fine, depending on the extent of the violation.   So far, the general public has supported the Anabolic Steroid Control Act, mostly due to the massive and militant media coverage of the topic.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 classified anabolic steroids as any drug or substance related to testosterone and used for muscle growth increase.   They are Schedule III of controlled substances.   The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 amen dment added hormone precursors such as androstenedione and androstenediol as controlled substances without a prescription.   Most anabolic steroids used in the United States come through the black market from other countries.   Even though sources may state the steroids are made by pharmacists and physicians, no one actually knows who produced them or how they were produced.  Ã‚   Some were produced in non-sterile environments while others may be for the use of animals but sold for human use.   Production of steroids sold illegally may have substitutions or other problems which can cause the contents to be dangerous even lethal.   Many sold via the internet are fake steroids which have contained cooking oil or toxic substances that produced methanol and/or blood poisoning.   Incorrect packaged doses and tampering of the product can also be suspected.   Since some users use more than one steroid at a time, dangers of consuming bad substances is increased.   You dont know how some of those ingredients will react together.Some research indicates anabolic steroid use may lead users to other illegal and/or legal drugs to counteract some of the side effects, especially for insomnia.   There is a limited amount of research and studies in this area.   A list of possible physical and psychological side-effects of anabolic steroid use has been reported.   These include coronary heart disease, which specifically increases the thickness and enlargement of the left ventricle.   Another side-effect is the decreased size of the user’s testicles, as well as the experience of immunodeficiencies.   The athlete who has taken anabolic steroids will also feel invincible and will actually show an aggressive behavior.   It has been reported the Hitler historically used anabolic steroids during World War II in order to increase his aggressiveness towards his troops.   In terms of damage to human health, anabolic steroids destroy the liver as well as transform connective tissues to a condition that these are easily injured or torn.Adolescents taking anabolic steroids have been reported to show stunted growth and suffer from blood clots and insomnia or unusual sleep patterns.   In terms of the effects of anabolic steroid on an individual’s blood chemistry, there are reported that a user will experience an elevated LDL cholesterol level as well as a lowering of HDL cholesterol level.   Interestingly, adults taking anabolic steroids experience moderate to severe acne because anabolic steroids influence changes in his endocrine system.   An anabolic steroid user also faces the chance of acquiring prostate cancer at an earlier age.   Certain male anabolic steroid users observe that their breasts start developing and some users experience temporary to permanent infertility.   Other users have stimulated appetites, psychoses and mood swings.   Increasing the dosage and combining steroids also increases risks of p ossible side effects.   Some side effects can be reversed after stoppage of steroid use and other effects cannot be reversed.   It should be noted that the results of side effects may take months or years before they are apparent even after the individual has stopped using them.   Recent evidence indicates withdrawal symptoms occur in long-term users who stop using anabolic steroids.However, the actual negative effects of the use of anabolic steroidal drugs have not been comprehensively investigated to date, and that the reports that have been disclosed in the media have been isolated cases picked out from millions of cases of teenage users around the United States.   Scientifically, the adverse effects from the prolonged use of anabolic steroids remain inconclusive to date, and in actuality, anabolic steroid use has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of medical disorders.   In one report, it has lately been determined that the effect of an anabolic steroid to t he treatment of weight loss in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is equivalently effective and safe as compared to the commonly administered recombinant growth hormone that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Storer et al. 2005).   In another scenario, the administration of an anabolic steroid has been beneficial in prostate cancer patients by preventing further migration of prostate cancer cells to other parts of the body (Guerini et al. 2005).   The anabolic steroid oxandrolone has been successfully used in the treatment of muscle loss in patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may be a potential powerful candidate for general treatment of such types of patients (Balagopal et al. 2006).Scientific research shows that anabolic steroids provide more beneficial effects than what has been claimed by legislation as serious, adverse effects to the human body.   More so, the negative reports that have associated with the use of a nabolic steroids have not been investigated scientifically and have only achieved much attention through the help of media and press coverage.   Therefore, it is imperative that the legislative bodies review the restrictions associated with the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 and fully determine the actual effects of anabolic steroid intake.   It is regretful to know that there are other drugs and activities that are much more deleterious or harmful to people but are not actively controlled by the Senate, including smoking, cosmetic surgery and over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen, which has caused even more cases of deaths and hospitalizations that anabolic steroids.Based on the above information on the current status, knowledge and use of anabolic steroids, several advocacy groups have proposed that anabolic steroids be legalized for use in the United States.   In turn, these groups emphasize the need for further scientific research to determine the mech anisms of action of each type of anabolic drug to gain a better understanding of its indications and contraindications.   There should be a comprehensive survey on the frequency of use of anabolic steroids across the human population, with stratified categories of users such as teenage athletes, geriatric patients, cancer patients, and so on.   Any cases that report any adverse effect from use of anabolic steroids should be properly documented and analyzed.   Should there be sufficient reason that anabolic steroids be stopped from circulation in the community, these advocacy groups are willing to review these effects once significant information has been gathered from reliable reports.;

Friday, March 20, 2020

Magic Rocks Crystal Growing Kit Review

Magic Rocks Crystal Growing Kit Review Compare Prices Magic Rocks are a classic instant crystal growing kit. You pour a magic solution over magic rocks and a fanciful crystal garden starts growing as you watch. Are Magic Rocks worth trying? Heres my review of the Magic Rocks kit. What You Get What You Need There are different Magic Rock kits on the market. Some of them only include the Magic Rocks and the Magic Solution. I bought a kit that included a plastic display tank and some decorations. If you dont get a kit that includes a display tank, you will need a small plastic or glass bowl (a small fishbowl works). For any kit, you will need: room temperature water (~70 °F)measuring cupplastic spoon or wooden stick My Experience with Magic Rocks I grew Magic Rocks when I was a kid. I still think they are fun. They arent a fool-proof project, though. Success depends on one thing: following the directions! Read the directions before beginning this project. The exact instructions will depend on your kit, but they go something like this: Read the instructions.Mix the Magic Solution with the amount of water indicated in the instructions. Be sure the water is room temperature and not hold/cold. Mix the solution well (this is important).Place half of the Magic Rocks on the bottom of the display tank. The rocks should not touch each other or the sides of the tank.Pour in the diluted Magic Solution. If any of the rocks were disturbed, use ​a  plastic spoon or wooden stick to put them back in place. Do not use your finger!Set the container somewhere where it wont get bumped. This location should have a stable temperature and should be out of reach of young children and pets.Look! The crystals start growing immediately. Its pretty cool.About 6 hours later, add the other half of the Magic Rocks. Try to avoid landing them on each other or against the side of the container.After another 6 hours, carefully dump the Magic Solution down the drain. Flush this solution away with lots of water to be sure no one will acciden tally touch it. Gently fill the tank with clean room-temperature water. If the water is cloudy, you can replace the water a couple more times to cleanse the tank.At this point, your Magic Rocks are complete. You can top off the display tank with water to keep the crystal garden as long as you like. What I Liked and Didnt Like About Magic Rocks What I Liked Instant gratification. Crystals begin to grow as soon as you add the Magic Solution to the Magic Rocks. You dont have to wait around for something to happen.The crystal garden is beautiful. Nothing looks quite the same.The project is easy.You can keep your creation indefinitely. What I Didnt Like Magic Rocks are not non-toxic. The ingredients are harmful if swallowed, plus they are a skin and eye irritant. That makes them unsuitable for very young children. Keep them away from pets, too. It is safe to rinse the materials down the drain, but clean-up is a little more critical than with non-toxic projects.You can get poor results if you dont adhere to the instructions. If the rocks are too close together, your crystals will look flat and uninteresting. If your water is too warm or too cold your crystals will be too spindly to support themselves or will be stunted.The instructions dont explain the science behind how Magic Rocks work. In case you are wondering, you arent really growing crystals in this project. You are precipitating colored metal salts. Its still awesome. The Bottom Line Magic Rocks have been around since the 1940s and are still around today because this project is a lot of fun, is easy to do, and makes an interesting chemical garden. I might hold off on playing with Magic Rocks if I had very young children in the house (recommended age is 10), but otherwise, I think they are great. You could make your own Magic Rocks, but most kits are inexpensive. Magic Rocks are a memorable science project. Compare Prices

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Which AP Classes Should You Take Planning Guide

Which AP Classes Should You Take Planning Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’ve decided you want to add an AP class to your schedule. Maybe you want to take even more than one! Good for you – taking AP classes is a great way to start challenging yourself in high school. Now comes the hard part: choosing which AP class (or classes) you should take. This guide will walk you through different factors to consider and help you decide on the best AP classes to take. What Steps Should You Take When Deciding on AP Classes? There's a lot more to choosing AP classes than just choosing a course that sounds interesting or that your friends are taking. AP classes can have big benefits, like strengthening your college applications and earning you college credit. However, if you don't choose your AP classes wisely, you could end up in a class that is overwhelming, boring, and/or drags down your GPA because you can't get a high grade in it. By carefully considering which AP classes to take, you can maximize the benefits you get from them while minimizing the drawbacks. Below are six steps you should take to ensure you've considered all the major factors needed for choosing the best AP classes for you. #1: Consider Your Strengths Before you even look too closely atyour school’s available classes, start by thinking about what topics interest you and which subjects you tend to do well in. AP classes can be very difficult even if you're interested in the subject material, so it would be especially challenging to get yourself to study for something you really dislike, even if you think taking a particular AP class will look good on a college application. Instead, you should aim for AP classes that you are interested in and think you can do well in. Explore our list of AP classes to get started. Also think about your favorite classes so far in high school or even back in middle school. Classes you enjoy are a good predictor of the type of AP class you will like and do well in. #2: Learn What Prerequisites You Need Once you have considered your own personal strengths, also think about classes you have taken that could prepare you for an AP class. You shouldn’t jump into an AP class unprepared! Often your school will mandate prerequisites anyway, like requiring pre-calculus before you can take AB or BC Calculus. Some schools even require you to take a placement test to get into certain AP classes! If your school doesn’t have prerequisites, or if you’re having a hard time deciding between classes, think about all of your past preparation. It can be more than just one prior class. For example, if you’ve taken honors English each year since seventh grade and also write on the school newspaper, you would likely be well prepared for AP English Language or AP English Literature. Conversely, say you took Honors Biology last year and didn’t do too well. AP Biology will probably be challenging for you, even though you technically have the prerequisite under your belt. So unless you like biology and are up for the challenge, you shouldn’t force yourself through AP Bio just because you think it will look good on your transcript. In short, consider both your school’s mandatory prerequisites and your own broader preparation. Try and aim for classes you think you are very prepared for, especially if this is your first AP class! Since in an AP class, you will also have to learn how to study for a cumulative exam – in other words a single test that covers a year of material – you should make sure your first AP class is in a subject you do well in. Don’t underestimate the added challenge of the AP exam. #3: Consider Other Skills Certain AP Classes Will Require In this discussion about prerequisite courses, you might be wondering about AP courses like Human Geography, Economics, Computer Science, Psychology and Statistics, which often don’t have direct prerequisites. When considering those classes, think about the skills you have built up – because again, even if your school doesn’t have a prerequisite for those AP classes, you still shouldn’t walk in unprepared. Learning to code in Java for AP Computer Science will likely be a brand new experience, so you should come prepared with strong logic and problem-solving skills! For example, if you want to take Computer Science, Statistics, or Economics, a strong math background is important. Even though you won’t spend tons of time in those classes solving equations, the logic and skills you learn in math classes are necessary to take on CS or Economics. For Psychology, think about how well you do in science and social studies, and also consider how good you are at memorizing things, since you’ll have to master the structure of the brain. For Human Geography, consider how well you do in geography and history courses and whether you enjoy them. Also consider your ability to take a broad idea and apply it to a concrete case study – as an example, are you able to pick out patterns in historical events? This is a skill you will need for Human Geography. To learn more about individual AP courses and the material they cover, see the AP student website. As you read course descriptions, think about how they relate to other classes you have taken and the skills you have. #4: Learn What Specific AP Classes Are Like at Your High School You should also consider which classes are offered at your school and what their reputations are when choosing AP classes. For example, at my high school in Salt Lake City, AP BC Calculus was known as a challenging class with lots of homework. During the second semester, you had to take it for two class periods! In contrast, AP Physics was seen as laid-back, and students were expected to manage most of the studying on their own. Students who needed structure thrived in Calculus, while others who liked to work more independently did well in Physics. But the reverse was also true – some students got burned out by BC Calc, and others didn’t have the motivation to study for Physics and so even though they passed the class, they failed the AP test. That AP Physics class was also famous for building trebuchets and testing them out during school hours. In short, teachers approach AP courses differently. Some expect their students to manage their own studying, like in a real college course. Others make sure their students are prepared by assigning a ton of work. As you choose AP classes and learn about their reputations at your school, think about your own study habits and what kind of classroom environment will help you do your best. There are many other school-specific factors to consider: who teaches the AP classes? What are their pass rates? How hard are the classes themselves to pass? How many students take the class each year? These are questions you can take to your guidance counselor, the AP teachers themselves, teachers who teach the prerequisite classes, or even upperclassmen friends. (Though don’t rely just on student word-of-mouth, since it can be biased!) If your school is adding an AP class for the first time this year, think carefully before taking it – it’s always tough teaching a class for the first time, especially an AP class. There might be some growing pains that first year as the teacher works out the curriculum. Veteran AP teachers are often a safe bet, because they will have strategies for preparing students for the exam. Often they will be involved in AP grading as well, so they will have lots of insight into how to pass the test. #5: Think About How Busy You Are AP classes are big time commitments, especially in the spring (see our post on test dates for tips on dealing with the spring time test crunch). Some teachers require extra study sessions, including on the weekends, to give you time to take practice tests. So before signing up for a slew of AP classes, think about the other commitments you already have. Especially if you have a very time-consuming sport or extracurricular activity, taking more than two or three AP classes could overload your schedule. Even if you have friends who are taking several AP courses, don't feel like you have to keep up with them. Keep your own strengths and limitations in mind. It’s better to pass two exams than to fail four! If you’re not sure if you’ll have the time to take on an AP class, talk to your parents/guardians (or a guidance counselor or teacher if you have a good relationship) for advice. Also find out if you will be able to switch out of the course mid-year if you realize you don’t have enough time for it. #6: Think About Which APs Best Fit Your College and Career Goals AP Exams are a great way to begin exploring future college and career options. They are also a great way to signal on your college applications that you are considering what you want to study in college and are developing the skills for college classes. When I was in high school, I was positive I wanted to study political science or international relations in college. So in addition to activities like Debate and Model United Nations, I also took AP classes like Statistics, World History, US History, US Government, Human Geography, and Environmental Science. All of these courses helped me explore topics and issues that college political science courses tackle, and also gave me skills – from the ability to analyze a poll to being able to break down an article’s viewpoint and bias – that prepared me for political science. Remember to keep your end goal in mind! On my college applications, I was able to show my interest in political science with both my extracurricular activities and the advanced classes I was taking. In addition to my test scores and GPA, being able to show colleges I was serious about what I wanted to study helped me be successful during the application process. In short, think about your future goals and how your class choices now can support them. AP classes are a concrete way to demonstrate on your applications that you are serious about a certain major and have the skills to pursue it. To take another example, if you want to be a doctor, tackling AP Biology and AP Chemistry can give you a taste of what the pre-med major will be like, and you can get a sense of whether you would be up for it. It will also show college admissions officers that you are serious about pre-med. If you’re stuck between two AP choices that otherwise seem good (you’ve taken the prerequisites and they have good teachers), go with the one that you think will be more relevant to your major or future goals. Also keep in mind that taking an AP Language exam, if you’re ready, is a great way to show second language proficiency to colleges. Many colleges offer credit for AP language, so it can free up time for other classes. Summary: The Best AP Classes for You We've covered a lot of important factors in determining which AP courses are the best for you to take. You should first look to your strengths and prerequisites to see what you naturally have a good shot at doing well in. Then, you should look at your personal schedule and find out the reputation of AP classes at your school to figure out which classes you can handle, and which ones are out of reach. Finally, you should consider what kind of applicant you want to appear as to colleges. This will help you plan your coursework to support your goals. What’s Next? Learn more about how AP exams are scored to help you choose. Also check out our post about how many AP classes you should take for advice on an AP schedule for the most selective schools. If you’re serious about APs, you should also be thinking about the SAT and ACT. The first step is deciding which test to tackle, which you can do with our guide. Once you’ve chosen between the ACT and SAT, come up with a target score to help you study! Use our guides for the SAT and ACT to come up with a score based on your top choice schools. If you're shooting for the Ivy League, learn more about the kind of scores you will need. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Discuss how mass production transformed architecture by focusing on Research Paper

Discuss how mass production transformed architecture by focusing on either canonical works of modern architects or the works of - Research Paper Example This article shall discuss how mass production transformed architecture, mostly focusing on either canonical works of modern architects or the works of non-architects. Body The introduction of computers have transformed design processes as well as design economics as it has also changed the quality of products which can be secured. The design software which designers have come to use has shifted from being a discerning environment and concept to a more generic mass produced design. The quality, the artistic-focused design as well as the modified quality of buildings, mostly homes, based on architects have generally been indicated for the rich and privileged members of society (Mumford, 2003). However, the traditional concept of prefabricated buildings also includes in the discussion a different type of craft not often seen among the low and middle class. Prefabs seem to be the answer to the issues on governmental housing systems, emergency shelters, as well as the need to secure envi ronmentally friendly homes (Friedman,, 2013). Just as museums have guaranteed for art, the prefabrication exports effective work for the general public. This is known as the commoditization of architecture and this paper shall further discuss the need for a strong interest in prefabs and related commoditization. Prefabs are generally an encompassing term. It is easily understood within the concepts of non-architects with great interest in architecture (Harker, n.d). It is often viewed with confusion by those who are not aware of design concepts. Prefabs also do not present with a specific definition, one which would allow for a strong appreciation and showing in the market. In general, all the houses are created in the US with prefabricated elements, but mostly, they do not have the necessary elements which would indicate that they are genuinely prefab (Harker, n.d). Modular housing is generally associated with prefabricated housing, but should also not be confused with manuf actured housing, within the concepts relating to construction quality as well as associated processes. Although the manufactured homes bring up different ideas on mobile housing, which are not nearly acceptable, modular housing presents more attractive site-assembled parts. Moreover, the Building Research Establishment in Scotland indicates that prefabs, whether they be of full volumetric indication or founded on component application, the need only covers construction applications, not the end-result or product (Phillipson, 2001). In general, there are different elements of prefabs: the kit home, the panels, and the volumetric modules (Blauvelt, 2007). The kit home refers to the parts which would be delivered on site, already packed with different parts to be assembled. The panels call for additional on-site work. One of the panels is delivered in large panels, including the walls, the roof, and floor; the rest are put together by skilled labourers (Buchanan, 2007). The module home covers a complete and defined prefab home. The different parts of the home are built in the factory with all the necessary parts built together, unless the different parts are used due to issues in the transport (Blauvelt, 2007). Moreover, the volumetric module is at 90% completion after shipment. As such, securing results from delivery to the handling of keys covers a

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Capstone Project Scenario Solution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Capstone Project Scenario Solution - Essay Example This paper will discuss from the point of view of an administrator, who intends to start a mobile MRI scan service and also analyzes its opportunities, challenges etc. Normally, if there is a quite a good concentration of human population, the risk of humans getting physical injury and abnormalities will always be there. If the population is higher, the risk element will also rise, and the risk will translate into actual cases of persons getting injured and having abnormalities. As there will be the need to diagnose this injured, the opportunity of using MRI will also get optimized. The administrator’s management of the orthopaedic surgery practice would have given him/her enough work experience, which would, gave him/her a clear and confident vision of the scope of MRI service. And this vision can be easily used to turn the challenge into opportunity. â€Å"Vision gives you the impulse to make the picture your own† (Collier). That is, as an administrator of an orthopaedic surgery practice, he/she may know the importance of the MRI scan, for the treatment of majority of the orthopaedic cases. As orthopedics is the specialized branch of medicine, which deals with ‘internal’ bones, tissues, muscles and nerves, MRI will be of great use. Internal is the key word because no orthopaedic specialist could pinpoint an injury or any abnormality just from viewing the external body. So in that case, only scientific equipment like MRI scans will be the viable option. â€Å"MRI†¦is a non-invasive method used to render images of the inside of an object. It is primarily used in medical imaging to demonstrate pathological or other physiological alterations of living tissues.† ( And that MRI will be put to great use, if the MRI services become portable. That is, when one gets injured in the any part of limbs (upper and the lower included) or in any other important bones, one cannot move with comfort. They need to be brought to the orthopaedic

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Scope And Limitation Of The Research Study Marketing Essay

Scope And Limitation Of The Research Study Marketing Essay Transition from a centrally-planed economy to market-economic structure, the Vietnamese market becomes more dynamic. All business and production activities are encouraged investment to contribute into economic growth and stabilization of the nation. Like other industries, investment in telecommunication services locally is welcomed and facilitated. The Vietnamese telecommunication service industry has rapidly developed. Together with development of the country, demand for communication quickly increases and high quality services are much preferred. More and more telecommunication service providers enter into the Vietnamese mobile service market. At present, there are 7 operators including VNPT, Viettel, EVN Telecom, SPT, HanoiPT, GTel and CMC. All players are facing the fierce competition. Most of the operators try to exploit their distinctive competencies to gain competitive advantages and use the appropriate competitive strategies to get more customers and make more profit. They try to forecast the customer needs and market trends to designing long-term corporate strategy for over all company to achieve the company objectives. In this situation, Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group (VNPT) recognised that development of effective business strategy has been considered as a highest priority in order to protect its leading position in this market. Through business strategy helps the company to have a business plan to develop its strengths, minimize its weaknesses in order to achieve opportunities and avoid threats in the marketplace in which it operates. In such a context, this research study deals with the development of business strategy for VNPT in Vietnamese Mobile service market. 1.2. Problem Statement As the competition is more and more fierce, developing appropriate corporate strategies for a company is the key to success in the market. But how can the company develop such a corporate strategy? In case of Vietnamese telecom service market, its considered that its being in stable stage. Especially the mobile service sector and fixed phone sector, they are considered as being in mature stage of its life-cycle. However in broadband sector, its being in the potential and growth stage. VNPT is the biggest company in Vietnamese Telecom market which obtained the highest market share compare to other competitors. At present, VNPT is facing the intensified competition from many competitors like Viettel, EVN, FPT, SPT,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ who try to reduce product price to get more customers as well as market share. The question is how can VNPT protect its position in the Vietnamese Telecom service market? To answer this question, VNPT needs to develop the corporate strategy to defend its curre nt position and extent business in another potential market. This research study examines how to develop the appropriate corporate strategies for Vietnamese Post and Telecommunications Group in order to protect its leading position and develop its business in the telecom service market. 1.3. Objectives of the Research Study The objectives of this research cover the following issues: To review literature dealing with the strategic management process, especially the process of strategy formulation To analyze opportunities and threats of the Vietnamese telecom service market from external forces such as the market trends, suppliers, consumers, competitors. To analyze the current situation of VNPT in term of strengths and weaknesses of its capacity, market share, and operation activities. To develop the business strategy for VNPT. 1.4. Research Methodology 1.4.1. Analytical Framework This research is presented in the form of a case study exposing the complexities of a real business environment in the Vietnamese telecom market. The purpose of this research is to develop corporate strategies for Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group. Thus, it is necessary to the analyze market situation and current corporate strategy of VNPT in order to formulate the corporate strategy. A framework may enable to understand the various linkages and interactions between the variables and to develop corporate strategies of the company. Figure 1.1 illustrates this analytical framework. The objective of external analysis is to identify opportunities and threats in the business environment in which VNPT has to face. Two interrelated environments should be examined at this stage: the macro environment of the Vietnamese market and the micro environment referred to the industry in which VNPT operates. The analysis of the macro environment focuses on examining the key achievements and limitation of the Vietnamese economy, political factors and government policies on the telecom service industry. The analysis of the micro environment involves an assessment of industrial growth, production, consumption pattern and the competition between existing operators in which the analysis the main competitors of VNPT is examined in the terms of strengths and weaknesses about their corporate activities. The internal analysis is devoted to pinpoint the strengths and weaknesses of VNPT. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the production and business of the company in the terms of capacity, market share, sales volume, finance and corporate activities. After having analyzed the internal and external factors, the corporate strategy alternatives can be developed. To select the best solution, VNPT needs to evaluate the alternatives with respect to the possibility to achieve the corporate objectives. The framework of this study can be illustrated by Figure 1.1 1.4.2. Information Needed To examine this research, information needed consists of the following issues: The Vietnamese Telecom service market reports in recent years, general information about Vietnamese economic climate, economic development, and government policies on the telecom industry are also collected. Competition in the telecom market, which is focused on getting information about main competitors in terms of strengths and weaknesses involved corporate activities such as product, price, distribution and promotion. Information about the current situation of VNPT that needs to be obtained including the company profile, corporate objectives, production capacity, market share, corporate activities. 1.4.3. Data Sources Data and information needed for conducting the research were basically obtained from the following main sources: Primary data: Interviews in-depth with managers, key persons of the VNPT Group as well as other specific telecom companies. Secondary source: Data requirements were extracted from the publication of the government offices such as the Vietnamese Ministry of Information and Communication. Data relating to international context was obtained from the Internet websites, the academic journals Data and information from books and journals, newspapers, articles related to the research were collected in CFVG library and the Vietnamese national library. Data and information were also obtained from VNPT annual reports, from in-depth interviews conducted with VNPT general director, and functional managers. Strategy Strategic management Michael Porter 5 forces SWOT analysis BCG matrix PROBLEM LITERATURE REVIEW SITUATION ANALYSIS Scanning external environment Analyzing competitive environment Scanning internal environment Evaluating current performance results Opportunities Threats Strengths Weaknesses EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF THE STRATEGY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Figure 1.1 Framework of the research study 1.5. Scope and Limitation of the Research Study This research study is conducted mainly at Vietnamese Posts and Telecommunication Group, Vietnam focus mainly in 3 main sectors: Mobile service, Fixed-phone and Broadband service. The study has been undertaken purely from a viewpoint of strategic management in order to set up a long term development for VNPT. This research has the following limitations: The process of strategic management involves 4 basic stages: (1) environment analysis (2) strategy formulation, (3) strategy implementation, and (4) evaluation and control. The research focuses only 2 steps: environment analysis and strategy formulation. In assessing the strengths and weaknesses of VNPT, the research has not examined its financial ability due to difficulties in gaining and assessing data necessary. Data about the competitors of VNPT mainly collected from secondary data, not from those ports themselves. Therefore, the information of these competitors is not sufficient. The tools which can be used to do strategic analysis are many but the only 5 will be under the research namely: PEST analysis: It is a technique understanding the environment factors like political, economic, social, and technology in which the business operates. Five forces analysis: it is a technique for identifying the forces which affect the level of competition in an industry level and business level. SWOT analysis: it is a useful summary technique for summarizing the key issues arising from an assessment of a businesses internal position and external environmental influences to company. Strategic Choice: This process involves understanding the nature of stakeholder expectations along with identifying strategic options, and then evaluating and selecting strategic options in the business. BCG matrix: It is a technique and analysis that seeks to summarize a businesses overall competitive position in business level and industry level. 1.6. Organization of the Research Study This research is organized in six chapters, as follows: Chapter 1: Introduction provides an introduction including background, problem statement, objectives, scope and limitation of the research study as well as research methodology. Chapter 2: Literature review presents the literature review of the study and summarizes the work of previous studies, it relates to the fundamental ideas on developing business strategy including strategy analysis and strategy designing. Chapter 3: Analyzing external environment covering the economic situation in Vietnam and situation of the telecom service market situation in order to find out opportunities and threats in the environment in which the company operates. Chapter 4: Analyzing internal operation analyzes and assesses the current position of the company regarding strengths and weaknesses of VNPT about its performance, market share and operation activities. Chapter 5: Developing strategies for VNPT conclude about above analysis based on SWOT matrix, BCG matrix identify competitive position and suggest a strategic approach, in particular a competitive strategy for VNPTs development in Mobile service Industry. Based on suggested strategy, recommende functional strategies for VNPT. Chapter 6: Conclusions summarizes the main points draw out from the study.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Change management Essay

Change management is an approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired future state. In this assignment I will be covering Rollin and Christine Glaser’s (1992) five elements to improve team effectiveness, IT management competencies, reasons for mergers and acquisitions in reference to South African businesses and roles leaders should play during the change process. In the aim to provide one with a better understanding of and insight of change management. Question 1 Rollin and Christine Glaser (1992) the five elements that contribute to the level of a team’s effectiveness over time. These are: †¢ Team mission, planning and goal setting; †¢ Team roles; †¢ Team operating processes; †¢ Team interpersonal relationships; and †¢ Inter team relations. Team mission planning and goal setting The most effective teams have a strong sense of their purpose, organize their work around that purpose, and plan and set goals in line with that purpose. Teams and individuals within teams must have a clear understanding of their objectives. Clarity of objectives together with a common understanding and agreement of these objectives are fundamental. Locke and Latham have identified that the very act of goal setting was a prime motivator for a team; the more your team sets clear goals the more likely it is to succeed. When implementing clear goal setting in a team it will increase the effectiveness ratio. Clear goals are even more substantial when teams are involved in change, partially because unless they know where they are going  they are unlikely to get there, and partly because a strong sense of purpose can mitigate some of the more harmful effects of change. Team roles The team should comprehend their own and other team members roles, and how these link to achieving the team objective. This becomes even more important with teams based remotely and some that are part-time working. The best way for a team to achieve its goals is for the team to be structured logically around those goals. Individual team members need to have clear roles and accountabilities. They need to have a clear understanding not only of what their individual role is, but also what the roles and accountabilities of other team members are. Clear roles have two useful functions. It contributes to a clear sense of purpose and it provides a supportive framework for task accomplishment. Team operating processes A team needs to have certain enabling processes in place for people to carry out their work together. These processes can be seen as ground rules for a team to adhere to. Certain things need to be placed that will allow the task to be achieved in a way that is as efficient and as effective as possible. Processes deals with the issues and decisions and how the team will respond to them in an efficient and effective way without disrupting the work process within the team. During the change process when team change typically puts pressures and priorities it can isolate people away from the team, the team operating processes can act like a lubricant, enabling a smooth healthy team to continually function. Areas that a team need actively label by discussing and agreeing include: †¢ Frequency, timing and agenda of meetings; †¢ Problem-solving and decision-making methodologies; †¢ Ground rules; †¢ Procedures for dealing with conflict when it occurs; †¢ Reward mechanisms for individuals contributing to team goals; †¢ Type and style of review process. Team interpersonal relationships To encourage team members to communicate with one another, share information, communicate openly, respect differences, which will increase relationships and understandings within the team. This all helps to build trust and a better working atmosphere. To achieve clear understanding of goals and roles, the team needs to work together to agree and clarify them. Operating processes must also be discussed and agreed. To achieve this level of communication, the interpersonal relationships within the team need to be in a relatively healthy state. Allowing for open communication that is assertive and task focused, as well as creating opportunities for giving and receiving feedback aimed at creating development. High levels of trust within a team are the foundation for coping with conflict. Inter-team relations Regular communication flows between teams are essential as they help to keep up with changing situations and ensure the right thing is being delivered. Teams cannot work in isolation with expecting in achieving their organizational objectives. The nature of organizations today are complex, sophisticated and with increasing loose and permeable boundaries. Teams need to connect more. It is also because the environment is changing faster and is more complex, so keeping in touch with information outside of your own team is a basic survival strategy. Question 2 IT MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES †¢ Business deployment: A systematical procedure of implementing an activity, processes, programs, or systems to all concerning areas of an organization to achieve a particular outcome. Communicate the value offered by emerging IT organisations. This needs to be coupled with the use of IT teams, with good knowledge of IT, to improve IT solutions. Examination of the potential business value of new, emerging IT Utilization of multidisciplinary teams throughout the organization Effective working relationships among line managers and IT staff Technology transfer, where appropriate, of successful IT applications Platforms and services Adequacy of IT-related knowledge of line managers throughout the organization Visualizing the value of IT investments throughout the organization Appropriateness of IT policies Appropriateness of IT sourcing decisions Effectiveness of IT measurement systems †¢ External networks: The network outside a team’s internal network environment which can’t be controlled by the team or the organization. These needs are to create close partnerships with external companies to create more organisational awareness. Existence of electronic links with the organization’s customers Existence of electronic links with the organization’s suppliers Collaborative alliances with external partners (vendors, systems integrators, Competitors) to develop IT-based products and processes. †¢ Line technology leadership: Line technology leadership is a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task within the IT management environment. It is having the ability in organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal. Users such as line managers and senior managers need to participate actively in leading IT  initiatives. Line managers’ ownership of IT projects within their domains of business responsibility Ability of employees throughout the organization to serve as Project Leaders. †¢ Process adaptiveness: The ability to change and adapt suitably and accordingly to suit the IT climate and are able to conform to the new conditions by means of modification. It is also about the companies track record in restructuring its processes, and the existence of an environment where employees can find and explore the functionality of IT systems. Ability of employees throughout the organization to learn about and subsequently explore the functionality of installed IT tools and Applications restructuring of business processes, where appropriate, throughout the organization Visualizing organizational activities throughout the organization. †¢ IT planning IT planning is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal within an information technology environment. It involves the creation and maintenance of a Strategic plan. The thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of an IT plan in relation to strategic planning, or integration of it with other plans. It combines with developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. Integration of business strategic planning and IT strategic planning Clarity of vision regarding how IT contributes to business value Effectiveness of IT planning throughout the organization Effectiveness of project management practices. †¢ IT infrastructure IT infrastructure is a combined set of hardware, software, networks, facilities, etc. In order to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control or support IT services. It controls the restructuring, design and architecture of data and networks etc. It is also about the appropriateness and flexibility of the underlying infrastructure which allows innovative IT practices to be emerged. restructuring of IT work processes, where appropriate Appropriateness of data architecture Appropriateness of network architecture Knowledge of and adequacy of the organization’s IT skill base Consistency of object (data, process, rules) definitions Effectiveness of software development practices. Question 3 Growth A lot of commercial mergers and acquisitions are about growing and expansion. Growth normally involves acquiring new customers. Merging or acquiring another company enables a faster way of growth, which detours around the unnecessary, long, tedious and uncertainty process of internally generated growth. It brings with it the risks and challenges of understanding the intended benefits of this activity. The appeal of immediate revenue growth must be weighed up against the negatives of asking management to run an even larger company. Massmart a South African firm has merged with American giants Wal-Mart in hopes to create more and new customers. It can also be about getting access to facilities, brands, trademarks, technology or even employees. This strategy was used to implement growth and expansion in this particular industry. Synergy It’s the cooperation of two or more organizations to produce a combined effect greater than when they were separate . If two organizations are  thought to have synergy, this indicates the potential ability of the two to be more successful when merged than they were apart. This usually translates into: Operating synergies are those synergies that allow firms to increase their operating income from existing assets ,increase growth or both. †¢ Growth in revenues through a newly created or strengthened product or service (hard to achieve) †¢ Cost reductions in core operating processes through economies of scale (easier to achieve) †¢ Financial synergies such as lowering the cost of capital (cost of borrowing, flotation costs) †¢ More competent, clearer governance (as in the merger of two hospitals). However, there may be other gains. Some acquisitions can be motivated by the belief that the acquiring company has better management skills, and can therefore man age the acquired company’s assets and employees more successfully in the long term and more profitably. Mergers and acquisitions can also be about strengthening quite specific areas, such as boosting research capability, or strengthening the distribution network. Diversification Diversification is about growing business outside the company’s traditional industry. This type of merger or acquisition was very popular during the third wave in the 1960s (see box). Although General Electric (GE) has flourished by following a strategy that embraced both diversification and divestiture, many companies following this course have been far less successful. Diversification may result from a company’s need to develop a portfolio through nervousness about the earning potential of its current markets, or through a desire to enter a more profitable line of business. The latter is a tough target, and economic theory suggests that a diversification strategy to gain entry into more profitable areas of business will not be successful in the long run (see Gaughan, 2002 for more explanation of this). A classic recent example of this going wrong is Marconi, which tried to diversify by buying US telecoms businesses. Unfortunately, this was just before the whole teleco ms market crashed, and Marconi suffered badly from this strategy. Integration to achieve economic gains or better services Another increasingly common motive for merger and acquisition activity is to achieve horizontal integration. A company may decide to merge with or acquire a competitor to gain market share and increase its marketing strength. Public sector organizations may merge purely to achieve cost savings (often a guiltily held motivation) or to enhance partnership working in the service of customers. Vertical integration is also an attraction. A company may decide to merge with or acquire a customer or a supplier to achieve at least one of the following: †¢ A dependable source of supply; †¢ The ability to demand specialized supply; †¢ Lower costs of supply; †¢ Improved competitive position. An example of this in South Africa is when Glaxo-Smith Kline (GSK) one of the largest pharmaceutical company worldwide decided to merge with Aspen Pharmaceuticals (Largest Pharmaceutical Company in South Africa) in order to get a better hold of its market position in Africa and by obtaining tenders and contracts by the government to supply local communities within South Africa generic medication and also anti-retrovirals. Defensive measures Some mergers are defensive and are a response to other mergers that threaten the commercial position of a company. Pressure to do a deal, any deal  There is often tremendous pressure on the CEO to reinvest cash and grow reported earnings (Selden and Colvin, 2003). He or she may be being advised to make the deal quickly before a competitor does, so much so that the CEO’s definition of success becomes completion of the deal rather than the longer-term programme of achieving intended benefits. This is dangerous because those merging or acquiring when in this frame of mind can easily overestimate potential revenue increases or costs savings. In short, they can get carried away. Feldmann and Spratt (1999) warn of the seductive nature of merger and acquisition activity. ‘Executives everywhere, but most particularly those in the world’s largest corporations and institutions, have a knack for falling prey to their own hype and promotion.  Implementation is simply a detail and shareholder value is just around the corner. This is quite simply delusional thinking.’ Question 4 There are various views about the role a leader should play in the change process †¢ The machine metaphor implies that the leader sits at the top of the organization, setting goals and driving them through to completion. †¢ The political system metaphor implies that the leader needs to become the figurehead of a powerful coalition which attracts followers by communicating a compelling and attractive vision, and through negotiation and bargaining. †¢ The organism metaphor says the leader’s primary role is that of coach, counsellor and consultant. †¢ The flux and transformation metaphor says the leader is a facilitator of emergent change. Different types of leaders have different types of role. Local line leaders These are the front-line managers who design the products and services and make the core processes work. Without the commitment of these people, no significant change will happen. These people are usually very focused on their own teams and customers. They rely on network leaders to link them with other parts of the organization, and on executive leaders to create the right infrastructure for good ideas to emerge and take root. Executive leaders These are management board members. Senge does not believe that all change starts here. Rather, he states that these leaders are responsible for three key things: designing the right innovation environment and the right infrastructure for assessment and reward, teaching and mentoring local line leaders, and serving as role models to demonstrate their commitment to values and purpose. Network leaders Senge makes the point that the really significant organizational challenges occur at the interfaces between project groups, functions and teams. Network leaders are people who work at these interfaces. They are guides, advisors, active helpers and accessors (helping groups of people to get resource from elsewhere), working in partnership with line leaders. They often have the insight to help local line leaders to move forward and make changes happen across the organization. The interconnections are hard to achieve in reality. We have observed the following obstacles to achieving smooth interconnection between the different roles: †¢ Executive leaders are busy, hard-to-get-hold-of people who can become quite disconnected from their local line leaders. †¢ Executive leaders and local line leaders rarely meet face to face and communicate by e-mail, if at all. †¢ Network leaders, such as internal consultants or process facilitators, are often diverted from their leadership roles by requests either to perform expert tasks or to implement HR-led initiatives. †¢ Network leaders may be busy and effective, but are usually undervalued as leaders of change. They often have to battle to get recognized as important players in the organization. Senge’s model recognizes the need for all three types of leader, and the need for connectivity between different parts of the organization if change is desired. Conclusion: It’s more appropriate in anticipating objections than to spend your time putting out fires,(prevention is better than cure) and understanding how to overcome resistance to change is a essential part of any change management plan. Expecting resistance to change and planning for it from the start of your change management course of action will allow you to effectively and effectively manage objections. Not dealing with change proactively is one of the larger downfalls. In the end all sources of resistance to change need to be acknowledged and employee’s emotions validated in order to move forward with the change. Index Page Glossary of terms Introduction Question 1- Rollin and Christine Glaser (1992) five elements to improve team effectiveness Question 2- Discussing five categories of IT management competences Question 3- Reasons for mergers and acquisitions in reference to South Africa Question 4- Roles leaders play in the change process Conclusion Bibliography and References Glossary of terms Restructuring: This type of corporate action is usually made when there are significant problems in a company, which are causing some form of financial harm and putting the overall business in jeopardy. The hope is that through restructuring, a company can eliminate financial harm and improve the business Acquisition: An act of purchase of one company by another. Merger: The combining of two or more companies, generally by offering the stockholders of one company securities in the acquiring company. Change: The act or instance of making or becoming different. Resistance: The refusal to accept or comply with something, the attempt to prevent something by action or argument. Cognitive: The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. References and bibliographies Cameron ,E, Green ,M. â€Å"Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change†. Kogan Page Publishers, (2012) Kotter, J. (July 12, 2011). â€Å"Change Management vs. Change Leadership -What’s the Difference?† Filicetti, John (August 20, 2007). â€Å"Project Management Dictionary†. Conner, Daryl (August 15, 2012). â€Å"The Real Story of the Burning Platform†. Anderson, D. & Anderson, L.A. (2001). Beyond Change Management: Advanced Strategies for Today’s Transformational Leaders.