Thursday, October 31, 2019

Assignment of Managing Organisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Assignment of Managing Organisation - Essay Example A series of facts can contribute to above outcome: a) the plan attempted has not been appropriately designed – in terms of the resources available for its realization, b) the reaction of employees – internal organizational environment – towards the specific plan has not been the one expected; the resistance developed has led to the cancellation of the plan or to the delay in the completion of one or more of its phases, c) the conditions in the organizational environment have changed at such level – referring to the period between the beginning of the planning process and the beginning of the implementation process – that the development of the plan became non-feasible or the value of the plan for the increase of the organizational performance has been eliminated. Current paper focuses on a particular aspect of the strategic management: the cross-cultural management; reference is made especially to the multi-national firms of the tourism and hospital ity industry. The cross-cultural management practices initiated by the managers of these firms are presented and evaluated. It is concluded that even if a range of such practices are available to the managers of these firms, still problems exist in the successful implementation of the relevant projects across these organizations. It has been proved that the above problem is mostly related with the lack of consistency of these strategies across the various departments of these organizations; moreover, failures have been identified in the service delivery to customers from different cultural backgrounds. These issues are analytically discussed below by referring to appropriate literature; the findings of empirical studies, where available, have been also employed in order to highlight the challenges of cross – cultural management in the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide. 2. Cross-cultural management in modern organizations 2.1. Cross-cultural management – descri ption, framework Culture may have different forms within different frameworks or using different criteria: for instance the national culture is differentiated from organizational culture; however, it has been proved that the former can influence the latter (Browaeys et al 2008, 20). The above view can be verified by referring to the study of Hofstede who emphasized on the fact that ‘management can be affected by differences between cultural groupings’ (Browaeys et al 2008, 21); the above researchers studied the performance of the strategies of IBM in markets worldwide – the performance of the firm in 64 countries was reviewed. It was proved that differences existed in the behaviour/ performance of employees in various organizational activities under the influence of the national culture - involved in each case (Browaeys et al 2008, 21). From a different point of view, Adler et al. (2008) noted that, in the context of international market, the understanding by glo bal firms of the national culture is important because of the following reason: being aware of the culture of a foreign country multi-nationals are able to make the necessary adjustments to their existing strategies so that the latter are implemented successfully in the firm’s branch in the particular country (Adler et al. 2008, 13). In this way, the culture of a country is closely related to the strategies used by the organizations operating across the specific country. In order to understand the challenges for the cross-cultural mana

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Toxicology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Toxicology - Essay Example gy disciplines, which relate well to occupational health and safety as they protect the staff from toxicity exposure at their work places (Greim, & Snyder, 2008). Clinical toxicology dwells on the effects of drugs as well as other chemicals in human beings. Every human being is exposed to chemicals and drugs at least once in their lives and it is usually accompanies with effects. This discipline tries to analyze the relationship between the doses of drugs and the effects they cause on people. Usually, a clinical toxicologist is in charge of this sector and usually aims at treating people who have faced such exposures. The clinical toxicologist is present in clinical settings to handle such incidents. This way, occupation health and safety is enhanced because the clinical toxicologist will first observe the symptoms and provide a treatment plan as well as advising on how one can cope with some adverse effects. Industries are known for their manufacturing and processing procedures. The goods produced are of a wide variety and some are consumables. This discipline of toxicology aims at ensuring that the products a company produces are safe hence do not pose a risk to consumers as well as employees (Kacew, & Lee, 2013). This discipline relates to occupational health and safety since it ensures that laboratory tests are conducted to ensure that the components used in manufacturing the products do not have negative side effects. This is necessary since the employees are constantly in contact with the raw materials during processing and even the final products as they conduct sales to the consumers. This puts them at risk and a company should therefore have industrial toxicologists that will ensure that the wide range of products is safe and effective. Forensic toxicology is a discipline of toxicology, which deals with gathering and providing information to the authorities following the event of drugs and poison exposure (Kacew & Lee, 2013). Forensic toxicologists

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Using Renewable Energy In Our Daily Lives Environmental Sciences Essay

Using Renewable Energy In Our Daily Lives Environmental Sciences Essay We all are concerned about our future with regard to the way we generate energy and power. Renewable energy is the process by which we use the radiant energy from the sun, wind, and hydropower etc. Unfortunately we are not using renewable energy in most cases and the methods by which we currently getting our raw materials for power and energy are simultaneously destroying our planet and depleting supplies of natural resources. The damages we have caused might take generations to reverse. Many of us who care wants to do something by raising their voice as we are on a threshold of change. Renewable energy resources are not only our way out of an environmental disaster; they could solve some of our economic woes. Many countries are embracing renewable energy and it has benefited n several ways. These benefits include saving consumers money and reducing unemployment. This is not a luxury that we pursue when the cost of gasoline goes up. Now is the time to convert our mode of transportation to clean electricity that we get from renewable sources. This is a necessity that is going to save the lives of future generations. We can survive the problems which we have created in order to power our world. The climate is changing and we have entire species of animals that are now extinct due to pollution. Lets look at the maximum possibilities as we are in the midst of a crisis therefore we must act according to what will benefit our generations. Aim Finding the main reasons for not using renewable energy in our daily lives. Objectives Literature Review Brief History Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, all energy used was renewable, with the primary sources being human labor, animal power in the form of oxen, mules, and horses, water power for mill power, wind for grinding grain, and firewood. A graph of energy use in the United States up until 1900 shows oil and natural gas with about the same importance in 1900 as wind and solar played in 2010. By 1873, concerns of running out of coal prompted experiments with using solar energy.  Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I. The eventual importance of solar energy, though, was recognized in a 1911 Scientific American article: in the far distant future, natural fuels having been exhausted [solar power] will remain as the only means of existence of the human race. In the 1970s environmentalists promoted the development of alternative energy both as a replacement for the eventual depletion of oil, as well as for an escape from dependence on oil, and the first wind turbines appeared. Solar had always been used for heating and cooling, but solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.  The theory of peak oil was published in 1956. By 2008 renewable energy had ceased being an alternative, and more capacity of renewable energy was added than other sources in both the United States and in Europe. Renewable energy is becoming more and more prevalent around the world, but it is still not the dominant energy resource.  Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Renewable Energy as a replacement for Conventional Fuel Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas:  electricity generation,  hot water/space heating,  motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services: Power generation. Renewable energy provides 19% of electricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas: for example, 14% in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40% in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20% in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100%), Norway (98%), Brazil (86%), Austria (62%), New Zealand (65%), and Sweden (54%). Heating.  Solar hot water  makes an important contribution to  renewable heat  in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50-60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed  solar water heating  systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. Transport fuels. Renewable  biofuels  have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power, requiring utilities to use more renewable energy (even if this increases the cost), and providing tax incentives to encourage the development and use of such technologies. There is substantial optimism that renewable energy investments will pay off economically in the long term. Primary Source of Renewable Energy With so much dependency placed upon our natural resources to produce our much needed energy, scientists have been evaluating and producing renewable energy as an alternative to traditional energy sources.   Renewable energy is energy that can be reproduced in a short period of time.   The most prevalent forms of renewable energy are solar, wind, biomass, hydro power, geothermal and biofuels. Wind An abundant source of renewable energy, wind power is used as a means of generating electricity.  Wind turbines  are capable of harnessing the power derived from the wind, converting kinetic energy into mechanical energy. A source of clean, green renewable energy, favourable climate conditions in Europe means wind energy is a highly viable method for electricity generation. And none more so than in the UK, with 40% of all wind energy in Europe blowing over the country. Solar In one form or another, solar power has been around for thousands of years. As a renewable source of free, green energy, technology has found a way of harnessing the suns energy via solar panels which are used either to generate electricity (solar photovoltaics) or to produce heat to warm water (solar thermal). A popular choice in a growing renewable energy market, solar technology doesnt generate greenhouse cases and is environmentally friendly. Biomass Biomass energy is produced from organic materials such as plants and animals, but the energy that is produced in this fashion is originally provided by the sun.   For example, plants absorb the suns energy through a process called photosynthesizes.   This energy is then passed on through the organism that eats the plant, creating biomass energy.   The most common forms used to generate biomass energy are wood, crops, manure and some rubbish. When these substances are burned, they give off energy as heat.   For example, if you have a  wood fuelled heating, you are generating renewable biomass energy.   This is not the only method of generating biomass energy; you can also create biomass energy by converting these substances into methane gases, ethanol and biodiesel fuels which can be translated more easily into our current methods of energy use. Geothermal Geothermal energy comes from the original Greek word Geo which means sun. Geothermal energy is derived from the heat that is given off by the Earth.   For example, steam energy or hot water that is generated by the Earth can be used to generate energy.   It is considered to be a renewable source of energy as the water in the Earth is replenished by regular rainfall and the heat used is regularly produced by the planet. Hydro Power Hydro energy is derived from the movement of water.   One form of  hydro power  is generated through the movement of water through turbines, such as water running through turbines in a Dam.   Hydro power is considered a renewable energy source as the water is continuously cycled back through the plant or into nature. Biofuels Biofuels are a form of renewable energy derived from burning plant or animal substances, otherwise called combustion. One of the challenges to biofuels has been that it is not easily transferred into a liquid form which is the primary method used to fuel most cars and homes. Two of the most common strategies that are seed to produce biofuels includes: growing crops to produce ethanol and growing plants that produce biofuel oils. While these methods are effective sources of renewable energy, they are challenging to produce and maintain on a large scale. The basic feature of renewable energy is that it has the capacity to be regenerated and, as such, is virtually inexhaustible, besides being environmentally friendly. These are the two major properties that distinguish it from traditional energy sources. In recent years, these two features have pushed renewable energies to the forefront since, if current fossil fuel consumption rates are maintained, they would only be able to meet our energy needs for a few more decades before running out. The damage to the environment, on the other hand, caused by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting climate changes, force us to consider alternative energy sources if we want to preserve the planet and guarantee the well-being of future generations. Advantages The advantages of renewable energy over traditional energy sources are many and are receiving ever greater recognition. Technological progress in recent years has contributed to making renewable energy ever cheaper and efficient in generating electricity. The main advantages of renewable energies are: They are inexhaustible, whereas fossil fuels are limited. They have less of an environmental impact than fossil fuel energy sources (coal, oil and gas), since they do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. They are less of a risk than nuclear energy. They provide energy independence to a country, given that their use does not depend on the import of fossil fuels (which only exist in certain regions of the world). They allow a country to develop certain areas within its borders. Disadvantages It is easy to recognise the environmental advantages of utilising the alternative and renewable forms of energy but we must also be aware of the disadvantages. One disadvantage with renewable energy is that it is difficult to generate the quantities of electricity that are as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators. This may mean that we need to reduce the amount of energy we use or simply build more energy facilities. It also indicates that the best solution to our energy problems may be to have a balance of many different power sources. Another disadvantage of renewable energy sources is the reliability of supply. Renewable energy often relies on the weather for its source of power. Hydro generators need rain to fill dams to supply flowing water. Wind turbines need wind to turn the blades, and solar collectors need clear skies and sunshine to collect heat and make electricity. When these resources are unavailable so is the capacity to make energy from them. This can be unpredictable and inconsistent. The current cost of renewable energy technology is also far in excess of traditional fossil fuel generation. This is because it is a new technology and as such has extremely large capital cost. Research Methodology Findings and Results Reasons of not Using Renewable energy in Daily Lives   Time and time again, we have to explain to them why their reasoning is unfounded but still we find the same excuses wherever we go.   So we thought wed take a little time to dispel the four most common excuses for not utilizing solar power. Its Too Expensive Everyone seems to know that federal and state governments have significant financial incentives in place to help promote the adoption of solar power.    Even after these incentives, the average residential solar system costs between $10,000 and $30,000 and for most people, this represents a major capital investment.   As a result, most people stop there and say, I cant afford it.    What they dont know is that there are a number of financing options available to help ease the cost of solar.   For example, a number of solar installers offer  financing programs  , similar to small loan or mortgage, where there is little to no up front cost and finance the balance of the purchase price through a loan.   As a result, the homeowner does not have to come up with cash upfront but can amortize the cost of the solar system over time.   Whats great is that when you factor in a your reduced utility bill from solar and the amortization cost of the panels, this amount is most likely still less than your electric bill without solar power.   So you save immediately and that savings grows over time as electricity rates increase. There are also programs where you can  lease the panels  Ã‚  for little to no up front costs and you pay a small, manageable monthly fee over the term of the lease.   Again, the savings on your electric bill from the solar panels plus this leasing fee is still likely to be less than your current electric bill without solar.   There is also a mechanism called a  power purchase agreement  , which is a great option for larger projects, where the solar installer installs and owns the panels on the roof of your home/building but provides you electricity and simply charges you a flat fee for that electricity over the life of the agreement (typically 15-20 years).   That way you are guaranteed a set rate of electricity over a long period of time (protecting you from annual rises in electricity rates) and there is no up front cost to you. The moral of the story is that there are a lot of options for people to pay for solar panels. Gone are the days where you have to come up with all the money for solar panels up front. There are simply more ways than ever to finance and make the cost of solar work out beneficially for residential and commercial consumers alike. Solar Wont Work in cold climate Another really bad excuse. The average temperature in a climate region does not have an effect on solar panels.   In fact, solar panels are actually slightly more efficient at producing electricity in cold temperatures. The critical factor for solar panels is a concept called solar isolation which is the amount of sunlight that the solar cells receive. Obviously, the more the better so even if you live in a colder climate that is further north and receive ample amounts of sunlight, solar should work just fine for you. (If you want to learn more about how solar panels work, you can click  here  .) Remember, Germany, is which is farther north than just about any state in the U.S., is the world leader in solar photovoltaic energy with over 9,000 Megawatts.   Thats almost enough to cover the roofs of 2 million U.S. houses!    So dont worry if you live in a cold climate, just make sure that you receive plenty of sunshine. No Power if its cloudy A reasonable concern, but again, not a good reason to avoid solar power.   As stated above, its not temperature that affects the performance of solar panels, rather it is the amount sunlight received.   And even in the sunniest of locations, there are going to be days where there is cloud cover or rain (not to mentioned nightfall) and your solar panels performance may be compromised.   Not to worryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦you will not be left in the dark. Residential and commercial solar panels these days are almost always connected to the utility gridà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦it is called a grid-tie.   So, while your solar panels are exposed to the sun, the electricity they produce powers your house or building.   But when it is cloudy or nightfall, you will still be able to draw power for your home or building because you remain connected to the electrical grid. Another cool concept is what is called net metering.   In states that allow net metering, if your solar panels produce more electricity in a day than you are consuming, that extra electricity is fed back into the electric grid and can actually spin your electric meter backward.   As a result, at the end of the month, the electric company will take into account the electricity that you fed back in to the grid through your solar power system and you will only pay for the net amount of electricity that you consume. People do not know Where to Start Getting Solar The worst excuse of them all!   First of all, there is a tons of information on the Internet related to solar, so for starters you can get educated that way. However, we understand that there may be so much information that you are overwhelmed. Never fear, sites  Ã‚  take the mystery out of the solar process.  contains all the information you need to know about how solar works, what to expect and even ideas to help finance your solar power system. With sites like  , there is no excuse not to understand the key elements of going solar. But what about getting a solar installer?   How do I know who to pick?   Another great question.   You can obviously talk to friends who have installed solar power systems in their homes and ask for a reference.   But if you dont have references, solar energy matching services can also take much of the guess work out of selecting a solar installer.   There are several free matching services that connect you with pre-selected and highly reputable solar installers based.   The process is simple: you provide basic information on your location and project type and within minutes or up to 1-2 business days the qualified solar installers will contact you to bid on your project.   These services have saved homeowners time and the headache of dealing with poor quality installers.   For example, see  . Critical Evaluation Conclusion and Recommendation We know that people have other reasons for not going solar and that is fine.   Choosing solar is a personal/business decision that can only be made by you. However too often, we have seen a number of friends and business associates avoid solar power based on the excuses above yet solar power could have been so value-added to their home or commercial project.   Our goal here is to hopefully de-bunk the biggest excuses that we have seen and help show that there are answers and solutions out there for your concerns.  

Friday, October 25, 2019

scarface movie review :: essays research papers

Scarface   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This film revolves around the world of an immigrant from Cuba by the name of Antonio â€Å"Tony† Montana. Along with his very close friend Manolo â€Å"Manny†, their goal is to live the American dream, which is to leave Cuba, relocate to America and become filthy rich. Tony’s mother and sister Gina are already in the States and currently residing in the state of Florida, where he plans to go and reunite with them. He eventually does and introduces Manny to the family. Right away Manny seems interested but keeps it to himself. They ultimately fulfill their goal, through organized crime, and are spoiled with wealth from an absurd steady income.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Over time, Manny’s feelings for Gina increase but he doesn’t want Tony to find out because of Tony’s protective state over his younger sister, also for his respect towards the family. Tony is the type of older brother that is bred on tradition and feels that Gina should not be dating until she is ready to marry, but Gina grew up in the States and is raised beyond tradition, therefore becoming defiant towards Tony and their mother.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One distinct evening, Tony and Manny head for the Babylon club, a well-known formal place where they and many famous people usually go. Unexpectedly, Tony finds Gina in the club dancing with someone he does not know. Then he catches them in the men’s restroom making out. Tony becomes furious and creates a scene in the club beating Gina in the restroom, after he deliberately instructed her not to go. This is just one of many incidents that occurred in the film.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In time, Manny and Gina were growing more and more attached to each other and started dating secretly without anybody knowing. A few months go by and they have decided to get married, so they did without the approval of Tony and their mother. The couple’s initial plan was to surprise Tony the following day of their wedding. Tony suddenly shows up at the newlyweds’ new home where the couple was about to spend their honeymoon. Manny answers the door in his bathrobe excited to tell Tony the good news. Suddenly he sees Gina in the foreground in her bathrobe, immediately Tony pulls out his nine millimeter hand gun and shoots Manny, his long time friend, in the chest. Gina dashes up to Tony crying hysterically, explaining the surprise they had planned.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Concepts of Learning

According to George Kimball, learning Is the result of a reinforced practice which results in a change in behavior. However, learning may not necessarily demonstrate itself in a change in behavior, but through the acquisition of knowledge. In other words, after learning, the individual will have new knowledge or be capable of doing something they would not have been able to do otherwise (Olson & Hermann, 2013). For example, when a child Is being potty trained, he learns how to use the toilet; his behavior will change from using a diaper to using the toilet o relieve himself.To further explain the concept of learning, we will look at the role of behavior in relation to learning, classical and operant conditioning, and the relationship between learning and cognition (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Role of Behavior In Relation to Learning According to Simile's deflation of learning, there are several ways In which learning can only be inferred from an observable modification in behavior. In ot her words, learning must be translated into observable behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013).However, a change in behavior may not be observable immediately, that is, there may e a potential to act differently tat later time. Lastly, according to Kimball, learning in the form of experience or practice, which must be reinforced, will result in a change in behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013). With the exception of B. F. Skinner, most learning theorists agree that the learning process can only be assumed from modifications in behavior. However, not all changes in behavior are the result of learning.Some changes in behavior could be the result of a temporary state, such as illness, fatigue, or drug use (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Some behaviors do not need to be learned, such as breathing or sweating. These behaviors are called homeostasis mechanisms. Their purpose Is to regulate a physiological stability. Humans are also born with reflexes. These reflexes, along with homeostasis, are necessary fo r survival. Learning Is often Identified through a relatively permanent change in behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013).Types of Learning There are two primary types of learning In terms of a procedures that can modify behavior: classical controlling and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was first developed by Ivan Pavlov when he accidental discovered that his dogs had earned to associate the sound of a bell with dinner time, which caused the dogs to salivate (Olson & Hermann, 2013). There are two requirements to classical conditioning. There must first be a natural reaction to an existing stimulus, such as an event or object. Next, the unconditioned stimulus that elicits a natural response Is paired with a new or â€Å"neutral† stimulus.The result Is that the formerly neutral my mom believes that giving her dog a high five before leaving the house makes her lucky because she won a couple of times at the casino after doing so. This prestigious behavior is a common examp le of classical conditioning in everyday life (Olson & Hermann, 2013). The second form of conditioning is operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental conditioning. Operant conditioning is a term first developed by B. F. Skinner, who used an apparatus he called the Skinner Box. The Skinner box was used to introduced a reinforce to condition a desired response (Olson & Hermann, 2013).Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that the organism must act in a specific way before it is reinforced; in other words, enforcement is reliant on the organisms behavior. With classical conditioning, the reaction is considered to be involuntary (Olson & Hermann, 2013). The most important aspect of operant conditioning is that a reinforce is used to strengthen a behavior. There are four different types of reinforces: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment (Olson & Hermann, 2013).Positive reinforcement is the addition of something agreeable or pleasant to strengthen a behavior. For example, giving the dog a treat after performing the trick properly. Negative reinforcement is the amoeba of something negative or unpleasant from the situation to strengthen the behavior. For example, when the students are well-behaved the teacher removes the essay question from the test (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Now, positive punishment is the addition of something the organism views as unpleasant to decrease or weaken a behavior.For example, when the students are misbehaving, the teacher adds an essay question to the test. Lastly, negative punishment is the removal of something pleasant from the situation to weaken the behavior. When a child is misbehaving, taking away his or her favorite toy (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Relationship Between Learning and Cognition Cognition and learning are closely associated and are codependent on one another. Without cognitive processes, learning cannot exist. The cognitive processes cons ist of thinking, remembering, knowing, and problem-solving.Other cognitive processes involve storing, receiving, processing, and using information learned by the individual (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Learning is the manner in which an individual gains knowledge or skills through experience and practice, which causes a change in behavior. Learning requires the use of many cognitive processes. Cognition is classically thinking, but not everything a person thinks about will be stored in their long-term memory for later use. In order to learn, a person must store the new knowledge into their long-term memory, usually done through repetition (Olson & Hermann, 2013).How memory processes information varies on an individual basis. Some people are able to recall information after Just one experience, others need to repetition or practice to be able to recall the same information (Olson & wants to keep for retrieval at a later time. For example, when I was a child I watched a dinosaur movie for the first time, and did to have the knowledge to identify â€Å"the monsters†. Once my mother identified the monsters as dinosaurs to me I now had the cognitive experience of â€Å"dinosaur. I loved the movie and the idea of dinosaurs so much that over the next few months I read as much as I could about dinosaurs. Through reading and looking at pictures, I gained the ability to identify many different species of dinosaurs. Eventually, I became able to identify other reptilian animals of various sizes. Conclusion In summary, learning is the product of practice and experience that has been reinforced which results in a behavior modification. On the other hand, learning does not always reveal itself in a change in behavior, but through the procurement of knowledge.However, most learning theorists believe that the learning process can only be presumed from a change in behavior. A relatively permanent change in behavior is a good indicator if learning has taken place. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Are two primary types of learning in terms of a processes that can modify behavior. The difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning is that in operant conditioning is that the organism must act in a specific ay before it is reinforced; in classical conditioning reinforcement is reliant on the organisms behavior.Learning and cognition have a close relationship and are codependent on one another. Without cognitive processes, learning cannot exist. In this paper, we looked at the concept of learning, we looked at the role of behavior in relation to learning, classical and operant conditioning, and the relationship between learning and cognition. References Olson, M. H. & Hermann, B. R. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning (9th deed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Nepotism in American Business

In the article â€Å"Nepotism in American Business† by Adam Bellow in the book Honest Work, Bellow makes the case that nepotism if practiced carelessly it is humiliating for everyone involved – especially the under qualified beneficiary – but if nepotism is performed successfully it fulfills a deep desire to care for our families while contributing to society at the same time. The roots of nepotism were initially developed in the fourteenth or fifteenth century in Italy to describe the dishonest custom of selecting papal relatives to office – generally illegitimate sons who were often depicted as their â€Å"nephews†. Today nepotism can be defined as â€Å"a favoritism based on kinship† and from a business aspect many see it as hiring a relative who is incredibly inept and unskilled. Many see hiring a relative – qualified or not – as nepotism, while in reality there are many practices today that can technically fall under the category as nepotism. Like most areas of life, some see these practices as acceptable and ordinary while others view them as full-blown nepotism in practice. Critics see nepotism as a way to promote and hire family members or close friends over more qualified applicants. These actions betray our innate sense of justice and seem to provoke strong feelings of disdain for the acts of nepotism and those who seem to be benefiting from it. Nepotism is often seen in family businesses and these practices are generally accepted as â€Å"the way things are† by the other employees involved. These opportunities are a large problem if the person is highly under qualified. Many economists see nepotism as an obstruction to change in business firms while others see it as â€Å"networking†. These views reflect the negative view of old nepotism. New nepotism has become more competitive and the world has become an international marketplace – if you are hired with connections you still have to prove your value and gain merit or consequences will follow. It is much less blatantly offensive to others around the beneficiary. Many seem to have the viewpoint that there really is no problem with hiring a close friend or relative as long as they have the qualifications that are necessary to fill the position that is available. This is an incredibly inconsistent way to judge if nepotism is really okay – if performance is high then nepotism is justifiably okay. There is a difference between old and new nepotism and culture has helped shape the positive and negative views of nepotism. The encouragement of governmental corruption in Asia, Africa and Latin America has Nepotism has had both positive and negative affects on the world and society as a whole and has helped shape our view of these practices.