Friday, May 22, 2020

Method Of Valuation Of Environmental Externalities Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4257 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Introduction The hole in the layer of ozone above the Antarctic, the birds oiled following the shipwreck of a tanker such EXXON VALDEZ or the ERIKA and very recently lately the escape of the oil platform of BP to broad of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the mine with open sky of Thedford Mines which emits asbestos dust in the atmosphere have a whole a common point: environmental externalities released by each situation. Indeed, each fact enumerated above has an negative impact on the environment or on the health of the individuals resulting from an activity of a company or a person which is not held responsible in spite of its responsibility for their generation such is in oneself, moreover, the definition of the term environmental externality. However, an externality is not obligatorily negative and can be, consequently, positive like showed it very well James Meade (1952), through its famous example of the bee-keeper and the nurseryman. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Method Of Valuation Of Environmental Externalities Finance Essay" essay for you Create order A externality is often the resultant of a fact that we can see or not to in the case of see an atmospheric pollution and whose monetary quantification is not easily realizable. Moreover, questions remain on the cogency of their quantification like on the way and the accuracy in their evaluation points out Antheaume (2004). Indeed, how can we consider the money value of a bird oiled, or the impact on public health following the atmospheric pollution rejected by a company? Moreover and a general way, the importance of the environment has been in increasing demand for more than two decades. Indeed, a real awakening on behalf of recipients (community, customers, shareholders, the State, etc.) request to find solutions with the growing number of environmental catastrophes or pollution various within the framework of the exploitation of the companies. Indeed, the companies have a central role to play in the action towards a better natural stock management of planet. In fact, even if the original intention of a company is to maximize its profits, this one must above all hold for account that each activity generated by the organization with an impact on the company and the environment in terms of environmental externality. However, if these impacts are not quantified, those are likely not to be taken as a real concern. Indeed, to affix a cost on an externality makes it possible to better become aware of its reality, to encourage their management while reducing his costs and thus directly its environmental impact. It will be the role of the accountancy of management, and thus of the accountant, to allow the monetary quantification of the environmental externalities. However, the various fields of expertise (economic, sociological and psychological) on the quantitative tools having to be employed in their quantification do not facilitate the task of the experts and often imply a joint collaboration between the engineers, ecologists, sociologists, etc. Moreove r, it is Pigoul  [1]  which, in 1920, brought for the first time the concept of externality, model rising directly from an economic theory. Moreover, it is well-known that one can manage only what one measures. It is besides with this long-winded speech that even comes the gasoline to have to quantify what appears unquantifiable such as the environmental externalities and that, in order to better be able to manage them. Even if the management of the external costs remains an important point in the need for their quantification, it is especially their internalization in the financial statements which will be seen facilitated. Indeed, the current countable standards do not accept the qualitative data yet from where the need for their monetary evaluation. However of many methods exist ultimate to this end. Consequently, this literature review wants to be a synthesis of the various existing methods in order to draw some the conclusions being able to be useful within the compan ies wanting to quantify the externalities and that in the attack of their objectives. Valuation and integration of Environmental externalities Let us recall first of all that the integration of the environmental external cost within the management system of the costs of the companies is not made compulsory yet. This integration is by optional definition, it is however recommended by many authors based on the principles of increase in the competitive regulation and advantage. However, as point out it Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005) like Epstein, Roy Schroeder and Winter  [2]  , the quantification of the externalities is only at its beginning. Thus, for the organizations choosing this integration, there exist today three great types of methods make it possible to evaluate the externalities cost: based on the control costs, the restoration cost, or the damage cost. Control cost The method evaluation of the external costs as regards to the control cost or avoidance cost is one of simplest. Indeed, the principle is that the cost of the environmental impacts (pollution in particular) of a company would be equal to the cost to install, to operate and of maintenance of technologies which would have made it possible to avoid this damage with the environment (IFAC 2005, Epstein and Roy  [3]  ). Moreover, Antheaume (2004) note which this method reasons in terms of marginal cost, i.e the cost of an additional unit of damage is estimated by the cost that it would have been necessary to spend to avoid it. Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005) support as it acts of the cost which the company would have really undergone to see will have to undergo one day if the regulation obliges it to reduce its damage. Thus, a possibility to obtain these costs, advanced by the IFAC (2005), is to refer at the cost supported by enterprises of countries where the regulation is more advanced. Consequently, Bà ¶er, Curtin and Hoyt (1998) raise that this method is frequently used as reference to choose between two investments related to the environment for example. This cost of control would be obtained also easily by the studies of the engineers or the companies of environment consultants. It is discussed as less as of other methods evaluation of the external costs according to Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005), and Greene  [4]  . However, Antheaume (2004) raises several limits. Indeed, according to him, the main issue of this method is that it does not estimate really the cost of the damage for the environment, but a theoretical cost for the company. Consequently, an important variation can occur between the methods of estimate of the damage cost and this method. Moreover, Antheaume (2004) and the US EPA  [5]  point out that there always does not exist of technologies to avoid certain pollution and thus not cost of control associated with these pollutants, or these technologies are not developed enough to estimate the cost of it. Cost of restoration According to the IFAC (2005) it is also possible to estimate the externalities by the cost not of avoidance of the damage, nor of the damage itself, but by the cost of restoration, or treatment of the caused damage. Thus, for example, when Exxon Valdez with struck a reef in 1989, the 11 million released gallons of oil generated more than 1, 25 billion dollar restoration  [6]  . In the same way, in 1988, US Environmental Protection Agency had estimated the cost of handing-over in a state of 27,000 Superfund or National Priority List (NPE) industrial sites to be cleaned in priority to approximately 25 million dollars by site  [7]  . Burritt and Gibson (1993)  [8]  thus identified three types of costs of restoration: direct, indirect costs and of repercussions. The direct costs are costs supported by the company such as the costs of repair of the boat, of cleaning, the legal fines and penalties in the case of Exxon Valdez. The indirect costs and the costs of repercussions are external costs, i.e generated, but not supported by the company. Thus, the indirect costs are those supported by the company to clean the coasts or for example the loss of income of the fishermen and tourism industry. The costs of repercussions are those undergone by the other companies of the sector such as the increase in the premiums of insurance and the loss of reputation. In order to estimate the cost of the externalities according to this method, only the indirect costs and of repercussions must be considered. The direct costs are indeed already undergone and thus recorded by the company. The major limit of this method according to Zachry, Graharan and Chaisson (1998), is the lack and the difficulty in obtaining relative data at the cost undergone by the company and the other companies of the sector. The applicability of this method thus appears very limited. Damage cost The last type of method evaluation monetary of the externalities is the damage cost. Indeed, these methods aim at estimating in scientific manner or economic the cost of the damage caused with the environment, itself (IFAC, 2005). Several subcategories of methods are used: method of the contract price, the hedonic scale, the costs of the voyage, conditional evaluation. Method of the market price Matthews and Lave (2000) and Reich (2005) advise to evaluate the externalities by their market valuet. Indeed, they notice that it is particularly difficult to determine their value in the absence of a market. Thus, they recommend to search for similar goods on markets the most similar as possible. Ardestani and Shafie-For (2007) are, with this method, evaluated the damage carried out by air pollutions of the energetic sector in Iran. Another example would be the price difference between two houses perfectly identical, in perfectly identical grounds except for pollution. The difference of price sale of these two houses (and all the other houses of the ground) would constitute, according to this method, the estimate of the cost of the damage related to pollution. However, this method seems very little used, certainly due to the fact that the majority of the environmental credits are public goods, i.e the possessions for which the property rights are not dà ©finis  [9]  and thus for which it there generally no market. Method of the hedonic scale The hedonic price method is a technique of evaluation which calculates a value for the environmental quality from differences such as in rents or prices of the real goods by example  [10]  . Thus, if we take again the example of our two houses (see Method of the market price), here it would not act more than two identical houses out of two identical grounds, but, on the contrary, of two houses with different characteristics and different grounds, always one polluted, the other not. Thus, work here would mainly consist in determining which is the importance of environmental pollution in the choice of the houses by the population. The given proportion multiplied by the price difference between the two houses equalizes the estimate of the cost of pollution. It should be noted that the comparison between two goods is not necessary; the proportion can also be applied directly to the price of house. As Harscouà «t (2007) notices it, this method is particularly adapted to the real es tate and work sectors. However, according to Khalifa (2002)  [11]  , the statistics and econometrics and thus a solid database are necessary to determine the sum which the individuals are ready to pay to improve the environmental quality or to decrease the risks of their work. Travel Cost Method (TCM) Harscouà «t (2007) underlines that this method is used mainly for the natural sites and/or areas. The subjacent assumption is that the individuals are ready to travel to visit natural parks for example. Thus, the minimal value of the withdrawn advantages of the site would be equal to the cost of voyage to the park, and of entrance fee (Bougherara, 2003  [12]  ). The use of the variation of the travels costs between a polluted place and another not polluted can also be used as estimate according to this method. However, apart from the sites, the use of this method appears very complex. Conditional evaluation The method the conditional evaluation or contingent (Contingent Valuation Method, (CVM)), popularized since the beginning of the years 1980s, is a technique of evaluation of the externalities, where one asks directly the population concerned, which sum they are ready to pay/accept for an improvement or a deterioration of the quality of the environment  [13]  . It is based on the method of the preference declared, expressed by the people concerned (Harscouà «t, 2007). Thus, there exist two principal methods, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) when one asks for the price which the people are ready to pay, and Willingness-To-Avoid (WTA) when one asks the price allowing to accept a degradation of their environment or for the price which the people are ready to pay in order to not undergo more degradation. This last method (WTA) is regarded by Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) as being a method of equivalent variation, because it measures the variation of income (price ready to pay or receive) al lowing an equivalence in their wellbeing between a situation with and without pollution. It is important to note according to Antheaume (2004) and Matthews and Lave (2000) that the WTP and the WTA are incremental methods, i.e. seeking to give a monetary amount at the impact of a marginal change of the environmental quality for the people. Thus, for example, Matthews and Lave (2000) sought to give a monetary amount the value which the people are ready to pay to avoid an environmental pollution increasing the risk of death by 1 per 1000, i.e a marginal degradation. Consequently, these two methods of conditional evaluation give an indication of the mobilizable resources, to prevent or repair damage for example, and also of the sensitizing of the opinion to the quality of the environment  [14]  . The assumption is that the sum of the assents to be paid/accept (often average or median) expressed to prevent or repair an environmental damage is equal to the value of the damage on the environment. It is it should be noted that it must sometimes be carried out an analytical regression in order to determine the share of the environment in the WTP or WTA, other criteria being able to enter in account as the case of the hedonic price method according to Grosclaude and Soguel (2004). Antheaume (2004) proposes to apply after a percentage equal to the proportion of company responsibilities in this pollution in order to obtain the external cost generated by this one. Several ways of applying these methods exist, even if all crosses by a survey. Indeed, according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) the principle of the contingent evaluation is to confront the individuals with a hypothetical market (contingent) on which environmental goods (e.g the appearance of historical buildings) are bought and sold. The interviewed people see themselves asking to indicate their preference for the good exchanged according to the bidding principle. Thus, these same authors identify thr ee means of asking for their preference: To propose an initial amount, then to increase or decrease the value suggested according to the response (iterative process) until obtaining an acceptance (and/or a refusal) or while limiting themselves to two questions. This last approach, resulting from Herriges and Shogren (1996)  [15]  , is called double bounded dichotomous choice. A trichotmous approach also exists, adding the possibility of saying if they would have accepted at a stronger or weak price with the approach of the double dichotomous choice (Loomis and Al, 1999  [16]  ). To let the person choose her own starting value then to propose lower values until to him he refuses the value suggested. However, according to Zhongmin and Al (2006) this first opened question often brings an absence of answer. This phenomenon is explained according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) by the lack of practice of the people with regard to the monetary evaluation of the quality of th eir environment. From where a bias of failure of non-answer of the surveys of the type WTP from 20 to 30%, to compare with the 5 to 7% traditional surveys according to Craig and McCann (1978)  [17]  . To regard the answering as a price taker, i.e to make him that only one price quotation which it accepts if its WTP (or WTA) is weaker or equal, and refuses if it is higher. This approach, developed by Bishop and Heberlein (1979)  [18]  thus leaves a dichotomous choice. Zhongmin and Al (2006) note that the suggested price can vary according to the answering. A fourth way of leading the people to reveal their preferences was developed by Mitchell and Carson (1989)  [19]  and bears the name of payment card. This one consists of the original proposal of multiple intervals of values including zero, the objective being that the answering can surround the value corresponding to him without being influenced by a particular value of reference. All these approaches search t o answer one of the main issues of the method evaluation contingent, i.e., according to Grosclaude and Soguel (1994), to manage to make express their preference by the people. Indeed, the skill even of the people to give precise, relevant and honest answers to this type of survey was questioned, and, in spite of several studies indicating a certain degree of validity of the answers (Matthews and Lave, 2000), any induced survey of behavioral skews. Principal skew, according to Zhongmin and Al (2006) is the skew of the yea, i.e. the tendency of the answering to say yes when them a question is asked. This skew would be particularly present when the answering are not accustomed to seeing themselves asking for their opinion (on the policies, etc.) (Matthews and Lave, 2000), and/or that the governments generally give the socially acceptable standard (all confused fields). Thus, for example, in its case study seeking to obtain the WTP to restore the site of Ejina in China, the authors h ad to use several methods in order to try to reveal truths WTP of the people. Following this study, Zhongmin and Al (2006) concluded that the approach of the payment card is that limiting a maximum skew of yea. Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) consider as for them that principal skew, of failure to reply or distorted answering, is related to the lack of information had by the answering to enable him to make a coherent choice by itself. Thus, they recommend, like Zhongmin and Al (2006) and Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes, Williams (2000), to devote part of the questionnaire to the setting in context and explanation of the environmental situation and its implications. Finally, the people would be generally perfectly able to answer this type of survey (Grosclaude and Soguel 1994, Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes, Williams 2000) even whereas it is about a hypothetical market for incremental modifications of public goods such as related to the environment. However, certain people are indifferent towards the surveys of conditional evaluation and they are increasingly numerous when the effects of the environment seem distant and total according to the principle of Not In My Back Yard  [20]  . Thus, Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) recommend to take into account only the answers of the receptive people (including if their WTP/A is null) and according to a representative sample of the local population. These problems are typical of this type of methods, resting on a survey and thus depending on the behavior of the questioned people even on people questioning. Thus, Ortà ºzar, Cifuentes and Williams (2000) come from there to think that measurement resulting from the conditional evaluation will be accepted only if it is close to the awaited values. However, it would seem that important variations can be obtained between two surveys of WTP. Indeed, the US EPA (1997)  [21]  used 5 surveys of conditional evaluation to measure the value attached to the risk to die prematurely becaus e by flight pollution. The results showed a median of 4,8 million dollars, but with a standard deviation of 3,2 million, i.e. almost 67%. Typology We reviewed the three various groups of methods monetary evaluation of the externalities: the cost of control, restoration or the damage cost itself. This classification is that of the IFAC (2005), but we can note several differences with that employed by certain authors. Thus, an important typological point should be noted concerning Willingness- To-Pay. Indeed, this name of method is used within two different frameworks: 1) for the contingent evaluation, i.e expressed preferences and 2) for the methods of market price, and the hedonic price, i.e preference observed (on a market). This last use is explained by the fact why the assent to be paid is usually (in economy) revealed by prices: more the price of a good is high, more it means (partly) that the people are ready to pay expensive for this one. Thus, certain authors such Harscouà «t (2007), GIEC  [22]  , OCDE  [23]  , use the term of WTP within the framework of evaluation methods of the externalities in economic m atter, i.e for the methods of market price, hedonic price and travel cost. It results from this a more general problem from classification of the various methods. Indeed, consequently, Harscouà «t (2007), Khalifa (2002) and Bougherara (2004) make following classification: Classification of the methods evaluation of the external costs Source: Harscouà «t, 2007, adapted of Khalifa (2002) and Bougherara (2004) And, in the same way, Antheaume (2004) does not classify the conditional evaluation within the methods measuring the cost of the damage, but in fact also a category with share. Jasch and StasiÃÆ'†¦Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¡kienÃÆ'„- (2005), the IFAC (2005), the Commission of the State of Massachussets  [24]  advise to rather use the method of the cost of control (or restoration according to the IFAC 2005) than that of the contingent evaluation, because they are discussed. Indeed, the methods of costs of control or restoration are based on costs which the company could, even would have, really to undergo and thus less variables. Moreover, the WTP and the WTA are considered very difficult to apply by the companies because of complexity of the surveys to realize and skews to be avoided. However, as Herborn (2005) could note it at the time of its case study, more the method is complex, less its result is accepted. Nevertheless, Harscouà «t (2007) and Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) consider that, in spite of its complexity, the method of contingent evaluation is to be privileged, because it reflects the individual preferences. In addition, Grosclaude and Soguel (1994) notice that it is the only one possible method when it is impossible to observe the preferences of the people on a market and that one wants to consider the damage cost to the environment. However, the control cost methods and restoration are methods, because they take the real hypothetical costs, fail to measure the cost of the environmental impacts. However, as Herborn (2005) also could notice it, one of the principal wills of the companies launching out in the monetary evaluation of the externalities is to reflect the importance of the environment in itself, e.g. of the biodiversity. Thus, in spite of the use of the contingent evaluation, the managers and shareholders are constrained to reduce the environment to a money value, because the environment represents more than of the money. Consequently, if the contingent evaluation, considering the values however that the people allot to the environment, is called in question for its reduction at the monetary terms, then in this case, the use of the methods of control cost and restoration does not appear possible. Indeed, there exists a significant difference between these last methods and those methods of damage costs (of which the conditional evaluation is most known). According to the case study realized by Antheaume (2004) this variation would vary the external costs by a factor from 1 to 12000 according to the method evaluation selected and of the impacts taken into account. Moreover, this variation can be considered as a subsidy of the society to the companies, because it represents the amount of damage which the society allows the companies to create without them having to support them one day. Whatever the method chosen, let us not f orget that the evaluation of external cost is thus shown feasible, with more or less large scales. Conclusion Refaire la conclusion As an accountant of management, our role is above all to provide information to the company. With regard to the environment, the most complete information is obtained when the environmental costs are identified, measured and allocated with the products or processes having generated them. ok To be done, several methods can combine. As we saw, the LCA, and the LCC makes it possible to arrive at our objective. However, in these methods based on the life cycle, certain costs (contingent, intangible) are with difficulty liables with a phase of the cycle, and thus often forgotten according to Norris, 2001. Thus, another solution is that of the complete cost in the form of the Total Cost Assessment, considering all the types of costs. However, the costs are not allocated with the products from this methods, from where interest of accountancy by activity (ABC) or of Full Cost Accounting. Thus, the FCA, the TCA and the ABC belonged to most frequently used by the companies interviewed by Parker (2000). Nevertheless, the FCA and the TCA imply also the accounting of the external costs. It becomes thus either optional, but necessary to choose a method evaluation monetary of the externalities. Among these last, the method of the cost of control (of prevention) and the conditional evaluation are most usually used. Nevertheless, the method of the cost of control is limited at a theoretical cost for the company, rather easily calculable, but not reflecting the damage really undergone by the environment and thus the company. Contrary, the conditional evaluation is based on the preferences and values of the individuals with respect to the environment. But, its great subjectivity and the methodological problems (choice of the approaches, skew) generate a controversy on the results obtained. Thus, the other methods measuring the cost of the damage (methods of the contract price, the price hedonic, the cost of voyage) seem to be to privilege when the y are applicable.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

A Guide to Book Report

A Guide to Book Report The series is also called the Moon Crash trilogy. Who are t the principal characters. You might analyze the characters or themes of the job. There are a couple methods you may track your book sales. Rather, it's an opportunity to talk about some themes that stuck with me while reading a specific book. Kids in high school ought to be mature enough writers to generate book reviews rather than filling out book reports. On occasion, the theme is really obvious. If you eat healthy, your stress levels will be decreased hence you're going to be in a place to concentrate on any task which you would like to perform. In reality, based on where you're starting from, it may be much sooner than that. Or to put it differently, you can't not see something in your field of vision. You ought to be able to handle most discipline problems all on your own. A customized book report calls for a suitable analysis after its complete study. Finish reading the book before you start your report. Instead you would like your report to encourage individuals to read the book. Before you start to read, consider what kinds of things you need to compose your book report. Book Report is the solution. To begin with, you should make certain you understand correctly what is expected of you. The Argument About Book Report Your site traffic another major indicator of how well your author company is doing. In addition, it would be best to keep adding valuable content to your website or sites on a normal basis. Compared with your site traffic, you're going to be in a position to see which lead magnets are converting the very best and which you might have to scrap. The students are certain to get a work of a great quality, with low-cost rates. What's Truly Going on with Book Report Like sadness you'll be leaving your workmates behind. You ought to learn about the disorder to be in a position to aid your mother or father. Neither you nor your child deserve having to experience the unneeded stress of needing to sort through all the material which has been collected throughout the year. There are separate questionnaires that are beneficial in writing a novel and biography file, history book file, science book report and a lot more. Every book reviewer requires a sample book report to experience the guidelines about how to compose a report on any genre of book in the right format. A minumum of one author has to be designated with an asterisk as the individual to whom correspondence ought to be addressed. No more inclusion in the references is necessary. Math should never be taught in only one way, but with various methods. Students should work a bit to find some creativity in their own statements. Most students might have to compose a book report. Vital Pieces of Book Report In the end, it's not journalist's role, and it's not the objective of activists or politicians, to present the world as it is really. Your son or daughter can pretend classmates are potential employees in a bookstore, and speak with them about getting folks to purchase the book. He or she can film a short video clip or movie trailer based on the bo ok. Alternatively, if he or she is feeling ambitious, she can produce a whole newspaper based on the characters' world. The use of the funding body in the plan of the analysis and collection, analysis, and interpretation of information and in writing the manuscript needs to be declared. Naturally, you shouldn't view your portfolio review for a time for you to be judged or ridiculed. When it's an ordinary yearly report form of a most frequent type of. Or, as an alternative, you may make a last evaluation of the book it is based on the task you were given.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode Free Essays

Biblical scholarship and the gospels can be useful examples for Kermode because these provide scholarly quality and discipline of the best biblical study and can set a high enough standard that can be exemplary to all. An indispensable instrument of survival in this world is the power to make interpretations. According to Kermode, in all the works of interpretation, there are insiders and outsiders, the former having or professing to have, immediate access to the mystery, the latter randomly scattered across space and time and excluded from the elect who mistrust or despise their unauthorized divinations, which may indeed, for all the delight they give, without absolute value. We will write a custom essay sample on The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode or any similar topic only for you Order Now From my understanding, he deems this important since much of what is written is susceptible to many interpretations. Thus the power to make interpretations has been dubbed by the author as an indispensable instrument of survival. Hermes is the patron of thieves, merchants and travelers, of heralds and their kerygma. He has been described as cunning and occasionally violent. He is also the patron of interpreters and since Kermode is an interpreter himself, Hermes is important in his profession. Hermes is, after all, considered as the god of going between –between the dead and the living, between the latent and the manifest. Hermeneutics is thus described as the rules of the art of interpretation and its philosophy. It has been thought by some as the most serious of philosophical inquiry; as a means whereby they effect a necessary subversion of the old metaphysics. It covers a range of activity from plain proclamation of sense to oracular intimations. The biblical passage quoted by the author is from the Gospel of Mark (4:11-12) to wit: Jesus said, â€Å"To you has been given the secret of God, but for those outside everything is in parables; so that they may indeed see but no perceive, and may indeed hear but no understand; lest they should turn again, and be forgiven.† This passage was included by the author because he needed to point out that a written work is susceptible to various interpretations. He wanted to point out that it is only those who already know the mysteries – what the stories really mean – can discover what the stories really mean. Carnal reading is that which is based on simple primary senses. These are readers who try to take the literary piece in their literal concept. In the story of Party going, the author wanted to stress the need to rely more on spiritual reading rather than carnal reading. He wanted to emphasize that we need to perceive and understand the story before us to achieve full comprehension. Hina was used by Mark to refer to â€Å"so that† while hoti was used by Matthew as â€Å"because†. The change by Matthew involved a different grammar where Matthew replaces Marks’ subjective into an indicative. The parable of the Good Samaritan has been interpreted in many ways –the most common of which is to showcase who or what a real neighbor is. And by the standards of the parable, it is that person who helps those in need. It was also referred to the fall of man whereby Adam is the traveler who has decided to leave Paradise and the Good Samaritan is Christ who saved him. Narratives are obscure because it allows us to interpret these in a manner we see fit. The parables are a perfect example in the sense that they allow us to learn something based on our own understanding or perception of a story vis-à  -vis the real interpretation of the text. How to cite The genesis of secrecy by Frank Kermode, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Steroids Essay Example

Steroids Essay There is a huge national concern over the misuse and abuse of anabolic steroids for enhancement of muscular stature and performance among competitive athletes.   Latest estimates have shown that approximately 5% of all high school students have used anabolic steroids, with almost half of the high students believing that these drugs are not harmful to their health.   Drug enforcement legislations have included anabolic steroids in its list of traffic-controlled substances (21 USC Sec. 801 1/22/02; Schedule III).   However, the bigger picture of the medical and research benefits of anabolic drugs have been overlooked due to the sensationalize media coverage of these drugs.   Current scientific researches are still inconclusive on whether anabolic steroids are extremely unsafe for administration, opposite to what has been actively claimed by anti-drug officials and government authorities.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 (ASCA) was established to regulate the distribution of anabolic steroids in the United States.   The Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of Justice has been mandated to implement measures to protect the people from these dangerous drugs.   A four-part definition of anabolic steroids serves as a blueprint to identify any analogues of the chemical substance that may be uncontrollably dispensed to athletes and other youths.   The definition included substances that are chemically and pharmacologically similar to testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, as well as a very close likeness in its enhancement for muscle growth.   The Act classified anabolic steroids in the same category as barbiturates and LSD precursors and claim that these substances result in dangerous effects to the human body.   The Act declares that any individual caught in the possession of these anabolic steroids will be arrested and prosecuted.   The list of anabolic steroids in the Act is continuously being updated, as new versions of th ese drugs are progressively being created through the years.Anabolic androgenic steroids are testosterone derivatives that are mainly used for muscle and performance enhancement.   These drugs are frequently used by competitive athletes in order to achieve an edge or better control of their physical strength and performance during professional sports games.   Retrospective surveys indicated that anabolic steroids have been used since the 1960s to date (Duchaine, 1983), with current national user rates ranging from 3% to 9% among high school students alone.   The exact effect of anabolic steroids in the developing human body has not been fully studied, and the increase in number of reports of teenage athletes committing suicide has called the attention of the legislation to assess and review drug enforcement laws covering this specific drug.It has been reported that the prolonged use of anabolic steroids have may cause a number of adverse effects to the human body, including li ver damage, gynecomastia, atherogenesis, psychiatric disorders such as aggression and violence, and even death (Balbigian, 2001; Brower, 2002; Glazer, 1991; Pope and Katz, 1990; Malone et al. 1995).   Investigations on the nationwide use of anabolic steroids have prompted Congress to establish the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990, which mainly indicates that the non-medical employment of anabolic steroids is punishable by law.   Any violations will be penalized by at least 15 days to 5 years imprisonment and/or $1,000 to $1,000,000 fine, depending on the extent of the violation.   So far, the general public has supported the Anabolic Steroid Control Act, mostly due to the massive and militant media coverage of the topic.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 classified anabolic steroids as any drug or substance related to testosterone and used for muscle growth increase.   They are Schedule III of controlled substances.   The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 amen dment added hormone precursors such as androstenedione and androstenediol as controlled substances without a prescription.   Most anabolic steroids used in the United States come through the black market from other countries.   Even though sources may state the steroids are made by pharmacists and physicians, no one actually knows who produced them or how they were produced.  Ã‚   Some were produced in non-sterile environments while others may be for the use of animals but sold for human use.   Production of steroids sold illegally may have substitutions or other problems which can cause the contents to be dangerous even lethal.   Many sold via the internet are fake steroids which have contained cooking oil or toxic substances that produced methanol and/or blood poisoning.   Incorrect packaged doses and tampering of the product can also be suspected.   Since some users use more than one steroid at a time, dangers of consuming bad substances is increased.   You dont know how some of those ingredients will react together.Some research indicates anabolic steroid use may lead users to other illegal and/or legal drugs to counteract some of the side effects, especially for insomnia.   There is a limited amount of research and studies in this area.   A list of possible physical and psychological side-effects of anabolic steroid use has been reported.   These include coronary heart disease, which specifically increases the thickness and enlargement of the left ventricle.   Another side-effect is the decreased size of the user’s testicles, as well as the experience of immunodeficiencies.   The athlete who has taken anabolic steroids will also feel invincible and will actually show an aggressive behavior.   It has been reported the Hitler historically used anabolic steroids during World War II in order to increase his aggressiveness towards his troops.   In terms of damage to human health, anabolic steroids destroy the liver as well as transform connective tissues to a condition that these are easily injured or torn.Adolescents taking anabolic steroids have been reported to show stunted growth and suffer from blood clots and insomnia or unusual sleep patterns.   In terms of the effects of anabolic steroid on an individual’s blood chemistry, there are reported that a user will experience an elevated LDL cholesterol level as well as a lowering of HDL cholesterol level.   Interestingly, adults taking anabolic steroids experience moderate to severe acne because anabolic steroids influence changes in his endocrine system.   An anabolic steroid user also faces the chance of acquiring prostate cancer at an earlier age.   Certain male anabolic steroid users observe that their breasts start developing and some users experience temporary to permanent infertility.   Other users have stimulated appetites, psychoses and mood swings.   Increasing the dosage and combining steroids also increases risks of p ossible side effects.   Some side effects can be reversed after stoppage of steroid use and other effects cannot be reversed.   It should be noted that the results of side effects may take months or years before they are apparent even after the individual has stopped using them.   Recent evidence indicates withdrawal symptoms occur in long-term users who stop using anabolic steroids.However, the actual negative effects of the use of anabolic steroidal drugs have not been comprehensively investigated to date, and that the reports that have been disclosed in the media have been isolated cases picked out from millions of cases of teenage users around the United States.   Scientifically, the adverse effects from the prolonged use of anabolic steroids remain inconclusive to date, and in actuality, anabolic steroid use has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of medical disorders.   In one report, it has lately been determined that the effect of an anabolic steroid to t he treatment of weight loss in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is equivalently effective and safe as compared to the commonly administered recombinant growth hormone that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Storer et al. 2005).   In another scenario, the administration of an anabolic steroid has been beneficial in prostate cancer patients by preventing further migration of prostate cancer cells to other parts of the body (Guerini et al. 2005).   The anabolic steroid oxandrolone has been successfully used in the treatment of muscle loss in patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may be a potential powerful candidate for general treatment of such types of patients (Balagopal et al. 2006).Scientific research shows that anabolic steroids provide more beneficial effects than what has been claimed by legislation as serious, adverse effects to the human body.   More so, the negative reports that have associated with the use of a nabolic steroids have not been investigated scientifically and have only achieved much attention through the help of media and press coverage.   Therefore, it is imperative that the legislative bodies review the restrictions associated with the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 and fully determine the actual effects of anabolic steroid intake.   It is regretful to know that there are other drugs and activities that are much more deleterious or harmful to people but are not actively controlled by the Senate, including smoking, cosmetic surgery and over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen, which has caused even more cases of deaths and hospitalizations that anabolic steroids.Based on the above information on the current status, knowledge and use of anabolic steroids, several advocacy groups have proposed that anabolic steroids be legalized for use in the United States.   In turn, these groups emphasize the need for further scientific research to determine the mech anisms of action of each type of anabolic drug to gain a better understanding of its indications and contraindications.   There should be a comprehensive survey on the frequency of use of anabolic steroids across the human population, with stratified categories of users such as teenage athletes, geriatric patients, cancer patients, and so on.   Any cases that report any adverse effect from use of anabolic steroids should be properly documented and analyzed.   Should there be sufficient reason that anabolic steroids be stopped from circulation in the community, these advocacy groups are willing to review these effects once significant information has been gathered from reliable reports.;

Friday, March 20, 2020

Magic Rocks Crystal Growing Kit Review

Magic Rocks Crystal Growing Kit Review Compare Prices Magic Rocks are a classic instant crystal growing kit. You pour a magic solution over magic rocks and a fanciful crystal garden starts growing as you watch. Are Magic Rocks worth trying? Heres my review of the Magic Rocks kit. What You Get What You Need There are different Magic Rock kits on the market. Some of them only include the Magic Rocks and the Magic Solution. I bought a kit that included a plastic display tank and some decorations. If you dont get a kit that includes a display tank, you will need a small plastic or glass bowl (a small fishbowl works). For any kit, you will need: room temperature water (~70 °F)measuring cupplastic spoon or wooden stick My Experience with Magic Rocks I grew Magic Rocks when I was a kid. I still think they are fun. They arent a fool-proof project, though. Success depends on one thing: following the directions! Read the directions before beginning this project. The exact instructions will depend on your kit, but they go something like this: Read the instructions.Mix the Magic Solution with the amount of water indicated in the instructions. Be sure the water is room temperature and not hold/cold. Mix the solution well (this is important).Place half of the Magic Rocks on the bottom of the display tank. The rocks should not touch each other or the sides of the tank.Pour in the diluted Magic Solution. If any of the rocks were disturbed, use ​a  plastic spoon or wooden stick to put them back in place. Do not use your finger!Set the container somewhere where it wont get bumped. This location should have a stable temperature and should be out of reach of young children and pets.Look! The crystals start growing immediately. Its pretty cool.About 6 hours later, add the other half of the Magic Rocks. Try to avoid landing them on each other or against the side of the container.After another 6 hours, carefully dump the Magic Solution down the drain. Flush this solution away with lots of water to be sure no one will acciden tally touch it. Gently fill the tank with clean room-temperature water. If the water is cloudy, you can replace the water a couple more times to cleanse the tank.At this point, your Magic Rocks are complete. You can top off the display tank with water to keep the crystal garden as long as you like. What I Liked and Didnt Like About Magic Rocks What I Liked Instant gratification. Crystals begin to grow as soon as you add the Magic Solution to the Magic Rocks. You dont have to wait around for something to happen.The crystal garden is beautiful. Nothing looks quite the same.The project is easy.You can keep your creation indefinitely. What I Didnt Like Magic Rocks are not non-toxic. The ingredients are harmful if swallowed, plus they are a skin and eye irritant. That makes them unsuitable for very young children. Keep them away from pets, too. It is safe to rinse the materials down the drain, but clean-up is a little more critical than with non-toxic projects.You can get poor results if you dont adhere to the instructions. If the rocks are too close together, your crystals will look flat and uninteresting. If your water is too warm or too cold your crystals will be too spindly to support themselves or will be stunted.The instructions dont explain the science behind how Magic Rocks work. In case you are wondering, you arent really growing crystals in this project. You are precipitating colored metal salts. Its still awesome. The Bottom Line Magic Rocks have been around since the 1940s and are still around today because this project is a lot of fun, is easy to do, and makes an interesting chemical garden. I might hold off on playing with Magic Rocks if I had very young children in the house (recommended age is 10), but otherwise, I think they are great. You could make your own Magic Rocks, but most kits are inexpensive. Magic Rocks are a memorable science project. Compare Prices

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Which AP Classes Should You Take Planning Guide

Which AP Classes Should You Take Planning Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips So you’ve decided you want to add an AP class to your schedule. Maybe you want to take even more than one! Good for you – taking AP classes is a great way to start challenging yourself in high school. Now comes the hard part: choosing which AP class (or classes) you should take. This guide will walk you through different factors to consider and help you decide on the best AP classes to take. What Steps Should You Take When Deciding on AP Classes? There's a lot more to choosing AP classes than just choosing a course that sounds interesting or that your friends are taking. AP classes can have big benefits, like strengthening your college applications and earning you college credit. However, if you don't choose your AP classes wisely, you could end up in a class that is overwhelming, boring, and/or drags down your GPA because you can't get a high grade in it. By carefully considering which AP classes to take, you can maximize the benefits you get from them while minimizing the drawbacks. Below are six steps you should take to ensure you've considered all the major factors needed for choosing the best AP classes for you. #1: Consider Your Strengths Before you even look too closely atyour school’s available classes, start by thinking about what topics interest you and which subjects you tend to do well in. AP classes can be very difficult even if you're interested in the subject material, so it would be especially challenging to get yourself to study for something you really dislike, even if you think taking a particular AP class will look good on a college application. Instead, you should aim for AP classes that you are interested in and think you can do well in. Explore our list of AP classes to get started. Also think about your favorite classes so far in high school or even back in middle school. Classes you enjoy are a good predictor of the type of AP class you will like and do well in. #2: Learn What Prerequisites You Need Once you have considered your own personal strengths, also think about classes you have taken that could prepare you for an AP class. You shouldn’t jump into an AP class unprepared! Often your school will mandate prerequisites anyway, like requiring pre-calculus before you can take AB or BC Calculus. Some schools even require you to take a placement test to get into certain AP classes! If your school doesn’t have prerequisites, or if you’re having a hard time deciding between classes, think about all of your past preparation. It can be more than just one prior class. For example, if you’ve taken honors English each year since seventh grade and also write on the school newspaper, you would likely be well prepared for AP English Language or AP English Literature. Conversely, say you took Honors Biology last year and didn’t do too well. AP Biology will probably be challenging for you, even though you technically have the prerequisite under your belt. So unless you like biology and are up for the challenge, you shouldn’t force yourself through AP Bio just because you think it will look good on your transcript. In short, consider both your school’s mandatory prerequisites and your own broader preparation. Try and aim for classes you think you are very prepared for, especially if this is your first AP class! Since in an AP class, you will also have to learn how to study for a cumulative exam – in other words a single test that covers a year of material – you should make sure your first AP class is in a subject you do well in. Don’t underestimate the added challenge of the AP exam. #3: Consider Other Skills Certain AP Classes Will Require In this discussion about prerequisite courses, you might be wondering about AP courses like Human Geography, Economics, Computer Science, Psychology and Statistics, which often don’t have direct prerequisites. When considering those classes, think about the skills you have built up – because again, even if your school doesn’t have a prerequisite for those AP classes, you still shouldn’t walk in unprepared. Learning to code in Java for AP Computer Science will likely be a brand new experience, so you should come prepared with strong logic and problem-solving skills! For example, if you want to take Computer Science, Statistics, or Economics, a strong math background is important. Even though you won’t spend tons of time in those classes solving equations, the logic and skills you learn in math classes are necessary to take on CS or Economics. For Psychology, think about how well you do in science and social studies, and also consider how good you are at memorizing things, since you’ll have to master the structure of the brain. For Human Geography, consider how well you do in geography and history courses and whether you enjoy them. Also consider your ability to take a broad idea and apply it to a concrete case study – as an example, are you able to pick out patterns in historical events? This is a skill you will need for Human Geography. To learn more about individual AP courses and the material they cover, see the AP student website. As you read course descriptions, think about how they relate to other classes you have taken and the skills you have. #4: Learn What Specific AP Classes Are Like at Your High School You should also consider which classes are offered at your school and what their reputations are when choosing AP classes. For example, at my high school in Salt Lake City, AP BC Calculus was known as a challenging class with lots of homework. During the second semester, you had to take it for two class periods! In contrast, AP Physics was seen as laid-back, and students were expected to manage most of the studying on their own. Students who needed structure thrived in Calculus, while others who liked to work more independently did well in Physics. But the reverse was also true – some students got burned out by BC Calc, and others didn’t have the motivation to study for Physics and so even though they passed the class, they failed the AP test. That AP Physics class was also famous for building trebuchets and testing them out during school hours. In short, teachers approach AP courses differently. Some expect their students to manage their own studying, like in a real college course. Others make sure their students are prepared by assigning a ton of work. As you choose AP classes and learn about their reputations at your school, think about your own study habits and what kind of classroom environment will help you do your best. There are many other school-specific factors to consider: who teaches the AP classes? What are their pass rates? How hard are the classes themselves to pass? How many students take the class each year? These are questions you can take to your guidance counselor, the AP teachers themselves, teachers who teach the prerequisite classes, or even upperclassmen friends. (Though don’t rely just on student word-of-mouth, since it can be biased!) If your school is adding an AP class for the first time this year, think carefully before taking it – it’s always tough teaching a class for the first time, especially an AP class. There might be some growing pains that first year as the teacher works out the curriculum. Veteran AP teachers are often a safe bet, because they will have strategies for preparing students for the exam. Often they will be involved in AP grading as well, so they will have lots of insight into how to pass the test. #5: Think About How Busy You Are AP classes are big time commitments, especially in the spring (see our post on test dates for tips on dealing with the spring time test crunch). Some teachers require extra study sessions, including on the weekends, to give you time to take practice tests. So before signing up for a slew of AP classes, think about the other commitments you already have. Especially if you have a very time-consuming sport or extracurricular activity, taking more than two or three AP classes could overload your schedule. Even if you have friends who are taking several AP courses, don't feel like you have to keep up with them. Keep your own strengths and limitations in mind. It’s better to pass two exams than to fail four! If you’re not sure if you’ll have the time to take on an AP class, talk to your parents/guardians (or a guidance counselor or teacher if you have a good relationship) for advice. Also find out if you will be able to switch out of the course mid-year if you realize you don’t have enough time for it. #6: Think About Which APs Best Fit Your College and Career Goals AP Exams are a great way to begin exploring future college and career options. They are also a great way to signal on your college applications that you are considering what you want to study in college and are developing the skills for college classes. When I was in high school, I was positive I wanted to study political science or international relations in college. So in addition to activities like Debate and Model United Nations, I also took AP classes like Statistics, World History, US History, US Government, Human Geography, and Environmental Science. All of these courses helped me explore topics and issues that college political science courses tackle, and also gave me skills – from the ability to analyze a poll to being able to break down an article’s viewpoint and bias – that prepared me for political science. Remember to keep your end goal in mind! On my college applications, I was able to show my interest in political science with both my extracurricular activities and the advanced classes I was taking. In addition to my test scores and GPA, being able to show colleges I was serious about what I wanted to study helped me be successful during the application process. In short, think about your future goals and how your class choices now can support them. AP classes are a concrete way to demonstrate on your applications that you are serious about a certain major and have the skills to pursue it. To take another example, if you want to be a doctor, tackling AP Biology and AP Chemistry can give you a taste of what the pre-med major will be like, and you can get a sense of whether you would be up for it. It will also show college admissions officers that you are serious about pre-med. If you’re stuck between two AP choices that otherwise seem good (you’ve taken the prerequisites and they have good teachers), go with the one that you think will be more relevant to your major or future goals. Also keep in mind that taking an AP Language exam, if you’re ready, is a great way to show second language proficiency to colleges. Many colleges offer credit for AP language, so it can free up time for other classes. Summary: The Best AP Classes for You We've covered a lot of important factors in determining which AP courses are the best for you to take. You should first look to your strengths and prerequisites to see what you naturally have a good shot at doing well in. Then, you should look at your personal schedule and find out the reputation of AP classes at your school to figure out which classes you can handle, and which ones are out of reach. Finally, you should consider what kind of applicant you want to appear as to colleges. This will help you plan your coursework to support your goals. What’s Next? Learn more about how AP exams are scored to help you choose. Also check out our post about how many AP classes you should take for advice on an AP schedule for the most selective schools. If you’re serious about APs, you should also be thinking about the SAT and ACT. The first step is deciding which test to tackle, which you can do with our guide. Once you’ve chosen between the ACT and SAT, come up with a target score to help you study! Use our guides for the SAT and ACT to come up with a score based on your top choice schools. If you're shooting for the Ivy League, learn more about the kind of scores you will need. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Discuss how mass production transformed architecture by focusing on Research Paper

Discuss how mass production transformed architecture by focusing on either canonical works of modern architects or the works of - Research Paper Example This article shall discuss how mass production transformed architecture, mostly focusing on either canonical works of modern architects or the works of non-architects. Body The introduction of computers have transformed design processes as well as design economics as it has also changed the quality of products which can be secured. The design software which designers have come to use has shifted from being a discerning environment and concept to a more generic mass produced design. The quality, the artistic-focused design as well as the modified quality of buildings, mostly homes, based on architects have generally been indicated for the rich and privileged members of society (Mumford, 2003). However, the traditional concept of prefabricated buildings also includes in the discussion a different type of craft not often seen among the low and middle class. Prefabs seem to be the answer to the issues on governmental housing systems, emergency shelters, as well as the need to secure envi ronmentally friendly homes (Friedman, et.al., 2013). Just as museums have guaranteed for art, the prefabrication exports effective work for the general public. This is known as the commoditization of architecture and this paper shall further discuss the need for a strong interest in prefabs and related commoditization. Prefabs are generally an encompassing term. It is easily understood within the concepts of non-architects with great interest in architecture (Harker, n.d). It is often viewed with confusion by those who are not aware of design concepts. Prefabs also do not present with a specific definition, one which would allow for a strong appreciation and showing in the market. In general, all the houses are created in the US with prefabricated elements, but mostly, they do not have the necessary elements which would indicate that they are genuinely prefab (Harker, n.d). Modular housing is generally associated with prefabricated housing, but should also not be confused with manuf actured housing, within the concepts relating to construction quality as well as associated processes. Although the manufactured homes bring up different ideas on mobile housing, which are not nearly acceptable, modular housing presents more attractive site-assembled parts. Moreover, the Building Research Establishment in Scotland indicates that prefabs, whether they be of full volumetric indication or founded on component application, the need only covers construction applications, not the end-result or product (Phillipson, 2001). In general, there are different elements of prefabs: the kit home, the panels, and the volumetric modules (Blauvelt, 2007). The kit home refers to the parts which would be delivered on site, already packed with different parts to be assembled. The panels call for additional on-site work. One of the panels is delivered in large panels, including the walls, the roof, and floor; the rest are put together by skilled labourers (Buchanan, 2007). The module home covers a complete and defined prefab home. The different parts of the home are built in the factory with all the necessary parts built together, unless the different parts are used due to issues in the transport (Blauvelt, 2007). Moreover, the volumetric module is at 90% completion after shipment. As such, securing results from delivery to the handling of keys covers a