Tuesday, December 24, 2019
On April 20, 1999, two teenaged boys opened fire at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, killing 13 students and wounding more than 20 others before ending their lives later that day. This crime was the worst school shooting in the 20th century and it has drastically changed the ways our schools operate. Although schools today are still not 100% safe and have had a few incidents in the past 10 years, we are slowly evolving and becoming better each year. Because of the Columbine massacre, we have learned many things and are still learning to become better each year nationwide. Public schools have improved their safety protocols vigorously by heightening security, creating Zero-Tolerance Policies and Bullying and Violence Prevention Programs. Schools have also allowed cell phones on campus and there is more Mental Health Counseling. The Columbine school massacre has made a huge cultural significance to us and is still important to us today. Without this massacre, we wouldnÃ¢â ¬â¢t be where we are nationwide with our schooling systems. For starters, schools and campuses nationwide learned from this massacre and started to improve their safety protocols right away. They began by heightening school security in various ways. Some of the common school security upgrades include: metal detectors, security cameras, required ID badges, enforced dress codes, banned or see-through backpacks and on-campus police officers (Criminal Justice). Also, some rules that were also appliedShow MoreRelatedEssay on Is NCLB Necessary?1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs the NCLB really necessary? The No Child Left Behind act is a nationwide legal system that is considered to improve our education system. The NCLB act improves our education system by setting a standard for each school to meet (a required academic standard), hire high quality teachers, improve communication with parents, and provide a safe environment for the students. However after the NCLB act took effect, not much was accomplished. Now many question whether the NCLB is really necessary. Read MoreA Report On Foodborne Illness Essay1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesillness. Prior to inspection or regulatory requirements and food safety, many people became ill or died from unsanitary conditions, unclean food, and foodborne illness. According to the CDC, foodborne illness is estimated to be the cause of nearly 9,000 deaths each year as well as 6 to 81 million illnesses. It is now known that viruses, bacteria, parasites, and toxins exist in food, which heightens greater urgency for food safety. Viruses, bacteria, parasites, and toxins are not visible to the humanRead MoreDiseases: Cancer Clusters1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgiven time among members of a defined community. Cancer clusters present many challenges due to the complexity of the analytic process and the abundance of inquiries and concerns. Because the research and studies of cancer clusters in the United States have uncovered few conclusive determinants, many states are hesitant in dedicating excess resources and money to the meticulous processes. Seeing the issue of discovering potential environmental hazards as a priority, Maryland is employing a specificallyRead MoreThe Principle Of The Global Business Standards Codex1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesResponsiveness Principle The final underlying principle of the Global Business Standards Codex is the responsiveness principle. This is the belief that employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s have a responsibility to give requested information by the stakeholders about the business operations and respond to any suggestions the stakeholders may have to improve the company. This principle also sets the expectation that all goods and services offered will exceed the expectations of the customer. If there are any complaints aboutRead MoreRed Cross Involvement Of The Rwandan Genocide1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmedical services to carry out their tasks. Ultimately it was this book that ignited the need for creating relief societies. DunantÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were quickly taken up by Gustave Moynier, a prominent lawyer in Geneva and president of the city s Society of Public Welfare, who went ahead and instituted Permanent International Committee of the Relief of the Wounded. This was later called the International Committee of the Red Cross which to date is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusiveRead MoreNurse Family Partnership : A Community Health Based Home Visiting Program1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) program is a community health-based home visiting program which is evidence based. This program is designed for women with no previous births who have low income. It involves the use of nurses or paraprofessionals to pay home visits to vulnerable mothers, usually socially disadvantaged teenagers who are first time mothers. These health professionals pay home visits from pregnancy till the children are about two years of age. The aim of this is to improveRead MoreCalifornia Is Notorious For Its Wildfires1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestwo decades San Diego County has faced some of the most destructive firestorms in state history (Brainard, 2007). Ron Roberts, chairman of the San Diego County Board of Supervisors, describes the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition as, We have a very dangerous, unpredictable situation. We have some of the highest temperatures, some of the driest landscape conditions, and some of the most powerful winds - all ingredients for a perfect fi restorm (Pesce, 2007). In 2003, San Diego County was overwhelmed by firestormsRead MoreOrgan Donation Is The Surgical Removal Of Organs Or A Tissue Transplant?1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesimportant factor of whether someone will be given a chance at receiving a donated organ for transfer. While there are some limited and general groups who do a great transaction of work in trying to educate the public, the Partnership for Organ Donation Gallup poll shows that the popular of the public gets their records about donation and transplantation from television and movies. (Partnership for Organ Donation 1993). The survey also shows that while a popular believe that organ donation is a brilliantRead MoreThe Laws And Protective Legislation1830 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages LAWS/ PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION The APHA asked states to pass laws forbidding spitting, coughing and sneezing in public without covering the mouth to prevent the spread of influenza. Legislation was passed to prevent the use of common cups and required sterilization of eating and drinking utensils. Caregivers were encouraged to wear gauze masks when caring for patients and advertisements encouraged people wash hands frequently, especially before meals, and avoid sharing hand towels or eating and drinkingRead MoreFairness and Balance in the Criminal Justice System1591 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOne of the most interesting things I learned from doing my research on community corrections in my jurisdiction is how the criminal justice system is committed to being fair and balanced. I have observed in a court arraignment how a judge briefed everyone in the court about proper protocols during the hearings .The judge said he could not start court hearings unless a prosecutor was present, and that he cautions the inmate the ri ght to remain silent, and also discussed to the inmate his rights. Community-based
Monday, December 16, 2019
Functional Transition Assessment attempts to integrate the student into the work force while the student is still in high school. It provides a temporary bridge or support structure for the student making the transition from an educational to a vocational environment. Although all students can benefit from such support, for students with disabilities such a program can prove especially critical. We will write a custom essay sample on Functional Transition Assessment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also by incorporating vocational education early on to the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s high school career, Functional Transitional Assessment can instill a sense of responsibility in the student and confirm the practicality of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Thus, in can act as motivational tool to succeed in the classroom and in workforce. In your opinion, how important is self-determination for the Exceptional Student Education student in accomplishing his/her educational goals? The Exceptional Student Education student may often feel that he or she has been denied the ability to exercise much autonomy and control over his or her daily life, even when under the guidance of well-meaning parents and educators. It is critical that students, to function effectively in the workforce and in society, achieve a sense of autonomy and independence through reasonable, self-determined actions and choices throughout the educational process. Why do you think occupational guidance has become progressively and increasingly more prominent in high schools? The workplace has grown more competitive, technical and specialized in nature, thus there is more pressure upon students to specialize earlier and earlier in their educational careers. The price of a college education has also escalated, causing many students to turn to specifically vocational and technical schools after high school. Students may also wish to seek internships and part-time jobs to fund their educations that convey relevant skills and knowledge to their future full-time careers. Personal-Social Skills. In your opinion, how important is it for a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s future success in the transition to the work force? Emotional Intelligence, or the ability to work well with others, and to be sensitive to other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs is a critical aspect of vocational success. It is not enough to know how to perform a task. One must know how to perform to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s best ability in an organizational context. How to cite Functional Transition Assessment, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Impact of International Marketing Research. Answer: Introduction The study focuses on the figures and facts of the chosen organization in a particular sector along with the description of the industry. In the report, supermarket retail sector of Australia is chosen while the market analysis will be conducted on the organizational context of Coles Supermarkets Ltd in Australia. Coles Supermarket is a subsidiary of Wesfarmers conglomerate that serves the Aussies with quality products from many years ago. Coles is considered as one of the most trusted supermarket retail chain among the Australians. Coles is present in 770 locations in Australia. The company operates both in online and offline markets. Consistency, innovation and delivering values to the consumers of Australia are the main motto of the company towards the community. Apart from that, the study is focused on the current trends, profitability and growth of supermarket retail industry. However, the role of the primary target market towards the decision-making process of the company. On th e other hand, positioning map will be created along with PESTEL analysis, segmenting, targeting, positioning, etc. It will help to describe the competition in the market as well as the steps of Coles that are taken to maintain a sustainable position in the market of Australia. Trends of Industry Australian grocery retail market is evolving very fast and there are many trends that are changing the nature of the market. The trends of the market are influenced by the shifting demographics of the consumer, retail convergence, and evolving online platforms. Many market research has showed that soon the supermarkets of Australia along with the other grocery retail markets. It is due to the excessive use of internet by the consumers the online stores are gaining more priority from the physical stores present in the market. However, the trends of the market are described into three categories of growth, profitability and external market analysis i.e. PESTEL analysis. Growth Grocery retail sector of Australia in the coming three years will change the patterns of the industry. The media fragmentation and the shifting consumer ethnicities and demographics are responsible for creation of the changing retail landscapes of the country in the year of 2017. They are different in many ways so that they can cope up with the changes in the environment. Internet penetration in Australia is responsible for changing the taste and preferences of the customers along with the challenging transitional phase from offline stores to online stores and finally to omni-channel. The digital transition of the market is responsible for creating challenges in the perspective of customer loyalty (Zeriti et al., 2014). It is seen that the supermarkets of Australia are ruled by Coles, Woolworths, Aldi, IGA and other supermarket retails. Coles has huge employee base that are responsible for creating values in the shopping experience of the Australian consumers by providing them qualit y products at affordable price. Profitability The industry is profitable in nature and is dominated by many supermarket retail giants as well as grocery retail stores of the country itself. In the year of 2016, up to the month of September $29.8 billion was spent to Coles, $32.6 billion was spent to Woolworths group, $11.2 billion to Aldi, $8.8 billion to IGA and $7.3 billion to other supermarkets of Australia (Kumar et al., 2013). The supermarkets are profitable in nature. However, the market reaches a level of saturation as the supermarkets of Australia are very competitive in nature. The companies are earning huge profits from the consumers irrespective of the market saturation. They are developing new products as per the demands of the consumers in the market. The trend of the supermarket is predicted as $25543.3 million while it is adjusted as $25616.4 million. It is seen that the supermarket of Australia trend to grow by 1.8% by the year of 2016 (Kumar et al., 2013). Macro Environment It can be said the supermarket industry in Australia is at saturated stage. Companies of supermarkets are competing with each other. The economic environment of Australia is favourable for the growth of the industry as the GDP of the country is growing annually by 2.5%. However, the macro environment of the industry is described in the light of PESTEL analysis. It will be mentioned in the appendix section. It will be explained by following the current trends of the market in the grocery retail sector of Australia (Koh Wong, 2015). Overall market segment The market segments of the grocery retail market in Australia are categorized into two categories. They are primary segments and secondary segments. The primary and secondary target market will be described in terms of the nature and segmentation of the customers. Supermarkets are the place where everyday use goods are available. People can buy everything related to household purpose from the supermarkets. Australian supermarket is also occupied by German supermarkets such as Aldi. Segmentation of the market is done in order to focus on the needs and demands of the customers so that they can serve them better (Kurt Hulland, 2013). Segmentation, targeting, positioning is also used in formulating segment specific marketing strategies while spreading awareness of the offers, discounts, new products, special attractions, etc. to the target customers. The customers are divided into two segments. It will be described in the three parts of segmentation. As supermarkets have every category of goods, hence the company can use many types of tactics in order to attract different target customers. Demographic segmentation includes the age group of the people i.e. the primary target markets. The age group selected by Coles is in between 25 to 50 years of age. The primary target markets of Coles are focused in order to increase the sales of the company. Demographic segmentation is an important form of segmentation used by Coles to specify their categories of products. Apart from that, there are other patterns of segmentation such as geographic segmentation. Geographic segmentation of Coles includes different urban and semi urban areas of Australia. Different types of geographical division are targeted by Coles in order to increase the sales of their products. The demographic characteristics of people also include income group. The average income of the people in Australia is much higher than that of other countries. Hence, the consumers of Australia are capable enough to buy things from the supermarkets of the country. Coles ranked second in terms of the grocery retail industry. However, the company is trying to take the first position in the market. The psychographic segmentation is important because it attracts different types of attributes and habits of the people. The different kinds of user status of the customers are important in order to formulate marketing strategies for it. Apart from that, Coles also formulate products as per the user status of the consumers of Coles. The customer loyalty of the customers are important to Coles as they focused on the developing the shopping experience of the shoppers every year (Fifield, 2012). Besides this, the different strategies that are formulated for attracting more customers in the stores so that they can shop more from Coles than other supermarkets present within the area. The segmentation process is the first step of positioning and targeting their products in the target market. Hence, identification of primary segment is more important than that of other aspects of the strategic management aspects in th e marketing department. Primary segment of market and their decision-making Primary market segment refers to the lady shoppers more than that of the male customers of the country. The primary target market is important for Coles as the values of the customers are important. The core organizational values of Coles are focusing on the customers first. It leads to delivering a good quality product to the consumers as well as excellent customer service. The focus of the company is to involve the customers of the company. The primary segments of the market i.e. the customers (Sheth Sisodia, 2015). Companies who are involved in formulating sustainable strategies are involving their different kinds of stakeholders in their primary decision making processes. There are different kinds of stakeholders such as internal stakeholders and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders include the people inside the company i.e. the CEO, CFO, and other senior professionals related with the company. External stakeholders of the company include government, customers, sharehold ers, etc. Involvement of external stakeholders is necessary in this context. The customers if they find that they are getting priority from the company, they will shop from Coles only (Lusch Vargo, 2014). On the other hand, improved level of customer service helps in generating more customers through word of mouth promotion. Innovation and focus on customers are the two aspects that the company is putting emphasis. It can be said that Coles is following participative form of leadership by involvement of different types of stakeholders in their strategic decision making process of the company. It is seen that most of the decisions of Coles are made in the favour of the customers. Employees of the companies are trained in a way so that they can deliver their best while serving the customers in order to maintain customer loyalty. Customers of the company are indirectly involved in the decision making process of the company. Employees of Coles are taking constant feedback from the customers regarding product development. They are trained in a way so that they can understand the latent needs of the customers. Customers and employees both are considered as an asset of the organization. Apart from that, there are different types of techniques used by Coles in their online platforms while engaging different types of customers. Online techniques are most common techniques that are used not only by different supermarkets of Australia but also used by all multinational companies of the world. Popularity of the company nowadays is depended on the online methods of improved engagement of people (Kumar et al., 2013). It is also considered as different kind of involvement of decision making process of the company. Competition As it is earlier discussed that, Coles is considered as the second most popular supermarkets of Australia in terms of popularity, size, market share and revenue, it is trying to occupy the first position in the supermarket industry of Australia. The company is increasing its sales by different techniques of innovation adopted by the strategic management department of the company. It is seen that Woolworths is considered as the number one supermarket retail chain in Australia in terms of revenue, employees, market share and size of the company. The strengths of Woolworths is its employee base (Leonidou et al., 2013). The huge employee base is responsible for creating a good opportunity for increasing the employment of the country. Coles on the other hand ranks second. The number of employees of Coles is less than that of Woolworths. The image of the brand and the reputation of the brand is important for both the companies. Apart from that, it can be said that there are two other compa nies that are ruling in different types of urban and suburban areas of the country. They also have a good market share and reputation in the market. The companies are German supermarket retail giant Aldi and IGA. Apart from that, there are different types of competitions that the supermarkets are facing in order to achieve a good market share. The main competition is the price war. All the major supermarkets are developing constantly new products at a lower price. Cost leadership is followed by most of the companies (Armstrong et al., 2012). Apart from that they are following economies of scale. The big supermarket giants apply the process of cost leadership is penetrating new areas of Australia while obtaining economies of scale in their methods of production, distribution and marketing of goods. Positioning map Positioning map in marketing is the process of creating a diagrammatic representation that is used by the strategic management department and the marketers while capturing the different levels of perceptions of the customers regarding the different attributes of the brand. The customers in this study include the primary target markets. Another name of positioning map is known as perceptual map. It is used in order to position a company or a line of products in the market (Berthon et al., 2012). In the report, a positioning map for Coles will be provided so that Coles can find its position in the market. The map will be formulated after taking feedback from the customers and the reputation of the company in the market. However, the determinants of the map are also formulated as per the feedback provided by the customers. Conclusion The report illustrates different aspects of Coles in terms of competition, segmenting, targeting, positioning and other aspects of marketing attributes. There are various types of facts and figures that are included in the report so that Coles can develop strategies regarding the different types of marketing strategies of the company. It is seen that the industry is competitive in nature with different kinds of technological advancements used by the companies in order to satisfy the needs of the customers. The report illustrates that the different kinds of retailers are in the matured phase as the trend of customers preference, increasing day by day while an increase in the expectations of the consumers as a whole. Improved facilities and excellent customer service are provided by all the companies. Coles must innovate new strategies in order to improve the base of the customers. References Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., Brennan, R. (2012).Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Prentice-Hall, London. Berthon, P. R., Pitt, L. F., Plangger, K., Shapiro, D. (2012). Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy.Business horizons,55(3), 261-271. Fifield, P. (2012).Marketing strategy. Routledge. Koh, A. C., Wong, J. K. (2015). The Impact of International Marketing Research on Export Marketing Strategy: An Empirical Investigation. InProceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 172-175). Springer International Publishing. Kumar, V., Bhaskaran, V., Mirchandani, R., Shah, M. (2013). Practice prize winner-creating a measurable social media marketing strategy: increasing the value and ROI of intangibles and tangibles for hokey pokey.Marketing Science,32(2), 194-212. Kurt, D., Hulland, J. (2013). Aggressive marketing strategy following equity offerings and firm value: the role of relative strategic flexibility.Journal of Marketing,77(5), 57-74. Leonidou, L. C., Leonidou, C. N., Fotiadis, T. A., Zeriti, A. (2013). Resources and capabilities as drivers of hotel environmental marketing strategy: Implications for competitive advantage and performance.Tourism Management,35, 94-110. Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L. (2014).The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions. Routledge. Sheth, J. N., Sisodia, R. S. (2015).Does marketing need reform?: Fresh perspectives on the future. Routledge. Zeriti, A., Robson, M. J., Spyropoulou, S., Leonidou, C. N. (2014). Sustainable export marketing strategy fit and performance.Journal of International Marketing,22(4), 44-66.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Karma KARMA and REINCARNATION Navigate: Ashram| Gurudeva | Newspaper | Church | Temple | Resources | HHE | Himalayan Academy Home Page The twin beliefs of karma and reincarnation are among Hinduism's many jewels of knowledge. Others include dharma or our pattern of religious conduct, worshipful communion with God and Gods, the necessary guidance of the Sat Guru, and finally enlightenment through personal realization of our identity in and with God. So the strong-shouldered and keen-minded rishis knew and stated in the Vedas. And these are not mere assumptions of probing, brilliant minds. They are laws of the cosmos. As God's force of gravity shapes cosmic order, karma shapes experiential order. Our long sequence of lives is a tapestry of creating and resolving karmas-positive, negative and an amalgam of the two. During the succession of a soul's lives-through the mysteries of our higher chakras and God's and Guru's Grace-no karmic situation will arise that exceeds an individual's ability to resolve it in love and understanding. Many people are very curious about their past lives and expend great time, effort and money to explore them. Actually, this curious probing into past lives is unnecessary. Indeed it is a natural protection from reliving past trauma or becoming infatuated more with our past lives that our present life that the inner recesses of the muladhara memory chakra are not easily accessed. For, as we exist now is a sum total of all our past lives. In our present moment, our mind and body state is the cumulative result of the entire spectrum of our past lives. So, no matter how great the intellectual knowing of these two key principles, it is how we currently live that positively shapes karma and unfolds us spiritually. Knowing the laws, we are responsible to resolve blossoming karmas from past lives and create karma that, projected into the future, will advance, not hinder, us. Karma literally means deed or act, but more broadly describes the principle of cause and effect. Simply stated, karma is the law of action and reaction which governs consciousness. In physics-the study of energy and matter-Sir Isaac Newton postulated that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Push against a wall. Its material is molecularly pushing back with a force exactly equal to yours. In metaphysics, karma is the law that states that every mental, emotional and physical act, no matter how insignificant, is projected out into the psychic mind substance and eventually returns to the individual with equal impact. The akashic memory in our higher chakras faithfully records the soul's impressions during its series of earthly lives, and in the astral/mental worlds in-between earth existences. Ancient yogis, in psychically studying the time line of cause/effect, assigned three categories to karma. The first is sanchita, the sum total of past karma yet to be resolved. The second category is prarabdha, that portion of sanchita karma being experienced in the present life. Kriyamana, the third type, is karma you are presently creating. However, it must be understood that your past negative karma can be altered into a smoother, easier state through the loving, heart-chakra nature, through dharma and sadhana. That is the key of karmic wisdom. Live religiously well and you will create positive karma for the future and soften negative karma of the past. Truths and Myths About Karma Karma operates not only individually, but also in ever-enlarging circles of group karma where we participate in the sum karma of multiple souls. This includes family, community, nation, race and religion, even planetary group karma. So if we, individually or collectively, unconditionally love and give, we will be loved and given to. The individuals or groups who act soulfully or maliciously toward us are the vehicle of our own karmic creation. The people who manifest your karma are also living through past karma and simultaneously creating future karma. For example, if their karmic pattern did not include miserliness, they would not be involved in your karma of selfishness. Another person may express some generosity toward you, fulfilling the gifting karma of your past experience. Imagine how intricately interconnected all the cycles of karma are for our planet's life forms. Many people believe in the principle of karma,
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Bitch essays William Henry Harrison was born the youngest of seven kids in 1773, at his familys plantation in Charles City County, Virginia. His father, Benjamin Harrison, was into politics and was a statesman. His mother, Elizabeth Basset, was a housewife. He studied classics and history at Hampden-Sydney College, and then began the study of medicine in Richmond. In 1791, however, he switched interests. He decided to pursue his military career. Harrison wanted to be a soldier when he was eighteen. He asked none other than George Washington if he could become a soldier. Washington decided to make him an officer, because he wanted Harrison to rise high in the army. A week later, Harrison received his officer uniform, complements of George Washington. Harrison was in the First U.S. Infantry, and was sent on duty to the Northwest Territory. In 1794 he was cited for bravery after fighting in the Battle of Fallen Timbers against a group of Native American peoples. The following year he was made Commander of Fort Washington in Ohio. Soon after, he married Anna Symmes. Harrison resigned from the army in 1798 and became Secretary of the Northwest Territory. In 1799 he was elected territorial delegate to the Congress of the United States. As delegate, he persuaded Congress to divide the public lands of the territory into small homestead lots. In 1800, Harrison pressed legislation to create the Indiana Territory, of which he was appointed governor. During his twelve years as governor of the territory, he persuaded native peoples to give their claims in almost the whole territory by getting them drunk. To me, this was his first major mistake in his political career. When Shawnee chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa formed an alliance of Native American Peoples to oppose further conquest of their lands, Harrison came back to the army to lead a powerful American force against them i ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Make Hot Ice From Vinegar and Baking Soda Sodium acetate or hot ice is an amazing chemical you can prepare yourself from baking soda and vinegar. You can cool a solution of sodium acetate below its melting point and then cause the liquid to crystallize. The crystallization is an exothermic process, so the resulting ice is hot. Solidification occurs so quickly you can form sculptures as you pour the hot ice. Fast Facts: Hot Ice Science Experiment MaterialsBaking SodaVinegarConcepts IllustratedSupercoolingCrystallizationExothermic Chemical ReactionsTime RequiredFrom start to finish, this experiment takes about an hour. Once you have the hot ice, you can quickly melt and recrystallize it.LevelBeginner to Intermediate LevelNotesThe chemicals in this experiment are non-toxic. However, because liquids are boiled, adult supervision is recommended. This project is best for middle school and above. Sodium Acetate or Hot Ice Materials 1-liter clear vinegar (weak acetic acid)4 tablespoons baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) Prepare the Sodium Acetate or Hot Ice In a saucepan or large beaker, add baking soda to the vinegar, a little at a time and stirring between additions. The baking soda and vinegar react to form sodium acetate and carbon dioxide gas. If you dont add the baking soda slowly, youll essentially get a baking soda and vinegar volcano, which would overflow your container. Youve made the sodium acetate, but it is too dilute to be very useful, so you need to remove most of the water. Here is the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar to produce the sodium acetate: Na[HCO3]Ã¢â¬â CH3Ã¢â¬âCOOH Ã¢â â CH3Ã¢â¬âCOOÃ¢â¬â Na H2O CO2Boil the solution to concentrate the sodium acetate. You could just remove the solution from heat once you have 100-150 ml of solution remaining, but the easiest way to get good results is to simply boil the solution until a crystal skin or film starts to form on the surface. This took me about an hour on the stove over medium heat. If you use lower heat you are less likely to get yellow or brown liquid, but it will take longer. If discoloration occurs, its okay. Once you remove the sodium acetate solution from heat, immediately cover it to prevent any further evaporation. I poured my solution into a separate container and covered it with plastic wrap. You should not have any crystals in your solution. If you do have crystals, stir a very small amount of water or vinegar into the solution, just sufficient to dissolve the crystals.Place the covered container of sodium acetate solution in the refrigerator to chill. Activities Involving Hot Ice The sodium acetate in the solution in the refrigerator is an example of a supercooled liquid. That is, the sodium acetate exists in liquid form below its usual melting point. You can initiate crystallization by adding a small crystal of sodium acetate or possibly even by touching the surface of the sodium acetate solution with a spoon or finger. The crystallization is an example of an exothermic process. Heat is released as the ice forms. To demonstrate supercooling, crystallization, and heat release you could: Drop a crystal into the container of cooled sodium acetate solution. The sodium acetate will crystallize within seconds, working outward from where you added the crystal. The crystal acts as a nucleation site or seed for rapid crystal growth. Although the solution just came out of the refrigerator, if you touch the container you will find it is now warm or hot.Pour the solution onto a shallow dish. If the hot ice does not spontaneously begin crystallization, you can touch it with a crystal of sodium acetate (you can usually scrape a small amount of sodium acetate from the side of the container you used earlier). The crystallization will progress from the dish up toward where you are pouring the liquid. You can construct towers of hot ice. The towers will be warm to the touch.You can re-melt sodium acetate and re-use it for demonstrations. Hot Ice Safety As you would expect, sodium acetate is a safe chemical for use in demonstrations. It is used as a food additive to enhance flavor and is the active chemical in many hot packs. The heat generated by the crystallization of a refrigerated sodium acetate solution should not present a burn hazard.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
No need to put the topic - Article Example With the advent of globalization, the power phenomena to compete in resources along with imperialization was the focal point. The United States is a super power because of the fact that it imperialized and was able to control its colonies compared to its European predecessors. (Peter Stearns, Ã¢â¬Å"The 1850s as a Turning PointÃ¢â¬ ) Stearn argues that globalization allowed a system of seamless integration in which trade was cultivated within countries. This is vital to understand as new Empires emerged and literally obtained new identities because of this emphasis of globalization. Stearn also reemphasizes the fact that United States was in the prime position to take advantage of globalization and has made itself a dominating superpower in the 20th century because of its focus to imperialize and control its territories. (Peter Stearns, Ã¢â¬Å"The 1850s as a Turning PointÃ¢â¬ ) An interesting aspect, the Ã¢â¬Å"nationÃ¢â¬ refers to state, which means the people itself. Prior to this phenomena, the nation referred to the government not the people. In this particular case, there is a shift for individualism rather than the focus on the state itself. In essence, there is no logical connection between citizens and the land they occupy themsevles which leads to an identity of a Ã¢â¬Ënation.Ã¢â¬â¢ The principle of nationality is crucial here to understand because it molds the structure of Europe at this point. Nationalism would not be appealing if the fact remained that nations realized that it is a self-serving ruling ideology. (Eric Hobsbawm, Ã¢â¬Å"Nation as NoveltyÃ¢â¬ ) The tension is the fact that for the first time there is a slight push towards assimilation of different groups- a bond for unity rather than classification of groups. The traditional role to be a conservative and traditionalist is slowly being deteriorated. HobsbawmÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis indicated that this tension can be a destructive as race can be a
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Maritime Externalities - Essay Example This problem of disposal and dumping of radioactive waste and its adverse effects on our ecology has gained considerable attention in recent years. Marine pollution not only effects and pollutes the environment and beaches, it upholds toxic effects for the marine divers, ecologists and marine wild life. It is true that more than 70% of land is water and how awful is the situation in which the marine pollution rate which is caused by ships and cruises is increasing. This rapid increase is harmful for us in dual ways. On one hand it pollutes the sea and marine life, thereby affecting our health indirectly as the same sea food is consumed by us, on the other hand we are directly affected by the marine wastes and polluted environment caused by sea transport. Offshore Externality: Another negative externality is to the fishing industry, which according to research is affected to an extent that there has been a concern about the impact of 'seismic detonations', which means that on a local scale, eggs and larvae are killed and fish are scared off (Vidas, 2000, p. 132). The onus has been on the shoulders of Norway and Russia, both of which are engaged in drilling offshore petroleum in the Barents Sea, whose part has been explored as an important spawning and growth area for the Arctic cod stock, supplying one of the most valuable commercial fisheries in the world. Any accident involving large scale oil spills would end up in severe environmental effects resulting from sea transport. Of course one cannot predict the probability of such accident but it is presumed to occur at higher temperate zones. Also the regional differences in shipping equipment standards and maritime industrial safety levels indicate that the risk is particularly high i n the Russian part of the Barents Sea. Should an accident occur marine life would suffer utmost from the climate and weather conditions. Pollution: The marine externalities are almost common to every country and state, therefore the law is international which suggests that marine environment in context with the rules on pollution from ships are essentially uniform and international at the global level. For example legal implications require that dumping at sea should be followed by a minimum standard on a global platform, but have been supplemented and strengthened by a number of regional agreements or by national legislation. Despite having same rules to be followed everywhere which is based on airborne sources of marine pollution no efforts have been made at the regional, sub-regional or national level to deal with this problem globally. No significance has been given to the environmental impact assessment which results from the basis of marine pollution. Not even legal monitoring of pollution is observed. What has been done so far in order to regulate marine environment is the regulation of International ship-sourced marine pollution which has acquired at least some attention since the 1950s. In this current era where 70% of our seas are polluted, the marine pollution regulation is still following the 1954 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. Though the Convention has been designed to combat maritime pollution by prohibiting and limiting the discharge of harmful substances or effluents from ships, but still unimplemented. Being globally accepted and encouraged by marine ecologists, this global application contains
Saturday, November 16, 2019
TC Boyles Style Essay Style is a huge part of why authors sell their work. Their way of writing, the tone they set, and the mood create helps define their style. TC Boyle has a very unique style that draws readers in and places them into his world. Although dark, creepy and slightly morbid is his style, he has a huge fan-base. In an interview he stated that Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my universe, and by god they will sufferÃ¢â¬ (Grant A life in writing: TC Boyle). This reveals how he has that dark side to him, also his mind set when writing. This increases defining what his style is. He mainly reveals his very original way of writing though the mood and situations he makes his characters go through. To start off, a great example that shows this morbid and sinister style is in his short story about a terrible football team that lost 56 to 0. In this story, he depicts how broken and battered this team is. They are a joke, and yet he gives the illusion they are going to change when he puts his main character into a preacher like situation, where he talks his disheveled teammates into playing another game and encouraging them to win. He has this character say, Ã¢â¬Å"What are you a bunch of pussies? Afraid to get your uniforms dirty? Afraid of a little contact? What do you want Ã¢â¬â to live with fifty-six-to-nothing for the rest of your life? Huh? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear you!Ã¢â¬ He places this character into a positive attitude, just to tear it down by having the team loose the next game, which he just encouraged the entire team to participate in. This positive outlook was taken away when Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦and Ray Arthur Larry-Pete Fontenot launched himself at the kicker like the space shuttle coming in for a landing, and suddenly Ã¢â¬â miracle of miracles! Ã¢â¬â He felt the hard cold pellet of the ball glancing off the bandaged nubs of his fingers.Ã¢â¬ And they lost the game and failed their last effort to not look so pathetic. It is beautifully written and encourages such an air of home but yet still has that sad ending and as the quote said, he made them suffer. Yes it is extremely entertaining, but still rather sad. Which brings me to the next example, which is provided in his story called Sinking House. A story about an old widow, whose late husband was abusive and horrid, who decides to drown her house. Boyle in this shows his style so well because then entire air and mood of the story is extremely somber and grey. Just picturing a house with an old lady all alone with water stricken floors and walls is extremely creepy. This story is a great example in explaining his style not only because of the entire situation and mood he sets, but putsÃ images into the readers mind about this woman and how her life was, it gives the reader something to connect with, and also takes the psycho nature of this woman away. One part she steps out of her house, away from the running water, and the flooding, into reality Ã¢â¬Å"In that pit of that dry silence she could hear him, Monty, treading the buckled floor, pouring himself another vodka, cursing her in a voice like sandpaper.Ã¢â¬ This opens the reader up to whole level of what she suffered through that in silence, she could still hear her husband verbally abusing her. The only solution was to have water running constantly, flooding her house, a sense of freedom. That imagery in my eyes is absolutely stunning. Making TC BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s style even more brilliant. His little tricks and clever connections add to his originality and unique style. Lastly, going on a bout connections, in the TC Boyles story, Chicxulu. This story is about parents who are told their daughter is a car accident and she is dead, at the same time drawing a parallel to a meteor that will take out the whole world in a second. He wrote this story so honest, as in the reactions and actions of the characters are right on point, exactly how you would picture it. There is a scene when the father and mother first arrive in the ER, and the father begins to mentally criticize everyone in the room who are doing their job, just because he in panic. This is such a normal and almost expected reaction that people under stress go through, as much as they may not want to admit it, it is defiantly human nature. This aspect of his style makes it so easy to connect with and that connection, ads a whole extra level to his works. In the end, when they go in for identification, and see that it is not their daughter, they are so relieved, although someone they know is dead lying before them, they have such relief. Another very human reaction, also the fact that it is not their daughter plays off what he said in the interview. He made these poor people suffer so much thinking that their daughter was dead, yet the reader is so intrigued and drawn in. We might feel a little angry towards Boyle because he did this to these loving people, but that twist makes the story very entertaining. There are so many aspects to his style, levels and things that play off each other that weave so well together making it truly unique. He is an incredible writer whose style is one of a kind. Really delves into how people think about the world and hits most people in areas they donÃ¢â¬â¢t normally think about or want to think about. Although most, if not all areÃ on the dark side, that characteristic adds to his style. His writing makes people think, and it gives new perspectives on situations because they are not the typical out-look or the most common situations one would encounter. Overall he is just brilliant and his distinct style makes writing exciting and oh so entertaining.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The Netherlands has been a trading nation for centuries due to its open economy and outlook. The Dutch are seasoned travellers. They are proficient in languages and skilled in negotiating trade agreements and implementing projects against the odds. As an open economy, the Netherlands is susceptible to international developments, notably in recent years the global recession Ã¢â¬â which has been exacerbated by falling share prices, the attacks of 11 September 2001, the war in Iraq and the outbreak of SARS. Nevertheless, the Netherlands was the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s eighth largest exporter of goods and services in 2003. Its workforce numbered 7.5 million, three-quarters of whom worked in the service sector. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) was Ã¢â ¬27,900. The unemployment rate was 5.3%. And growth was strongest in the public sector, education and health care. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Traversed by the rivers Rhine, Maas and Scheldt as they meander towards the North Sea, the Netherlands is a hub of transport and distribution: a natural gateway to Europe and centre for multinational enterprise. Its advantages include an advanced infrastructure both for transport and telecommunications. Many Asian and North American imports to Europe are transhipped at Rotterdam or Amsterdam, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s two transport centres. The seaport of Rotterdam is the largest in the world, transhipping tens of millions of tonnes of goods per year. And Amsterdam Schiphol Airport is the fourth largest airport in Europe for both passenger and goods traffic. Dutch transport companies are clustered around the two main import and export centres: Amsterdam Schiphol Airport and the seaport of Rotterdam. The best-known transport companies are Nedlloyd, Frans Maas and Smit International. The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest national airline, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, had to merge with French airline Air France in 2003. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many Dutch companies operate globally. The Netherlands' three largest international trading companies are Ahold, SHV Holdings and Hagemeyer. Many manufacturers, such as Unilever Philips, Akzo Nobel and Shell, also do a great deal of trade. Dredging is a Dutch specialty and companies such as Boskalis, HAM and Ballast Nedam have larger foreign operations than domestic ones. And KPN Nederland is a major player in international telecommunications, working with many non-Dutch companies. Dutch manufacturers too have a global outlook. They export goods worldwide, maintain subsidiaries in many countries and often join forces with foreign partners. The main manufacturing industries are chemicals, food processing, metalworking and the refining of gas and oil. The printing and electronic engineering industries are also world-class. Dutch
Monday, November 11, 2019
The purpose, aims, and the of import characteristics of community well-being are good recognized and visibly identified ( Schiavo, 2007 ) chiefly focused on nurturing of the well-being of the community and the populace in general through the activities of bar and control of disease ( Cohen, Chavez and Chehimi, 2010 ) . Soon, public wellness utilizes assorted devices to carry through its intents and due to the epoch of emergent cyberspace rebellion and adept proficient universe, information sciences is an illustration of critical tools that public wellness is using to supply distinguishable and timely attention to the community more proficiently. Supplying such services could be disputing for many grounds due to the fact that when information sciences combines with public wellness services, there are diverse degrees of affairs and issues to be handled ( Yasnoff, O'Carroll, Koo, Linkins and Kilbourne, 1995 ) . In this paper, the advancement made by public wellness over the old ages in relation to malignant neoplastic disease bar through information sciences in the United States will be evaluated. In 1971, there was the realisation that malignant neoplastic disease is a disease that required immediate and pressing attending by the public wellness hence Congress the declared Ã¢â¬Å" war on malignant neoplastic disease, Ã¢â¬ ( Hess et al. , 2005 p.160 ) . At that clip, it was the apprehension of public wellness that covering with malignant neoplastic disease was like managing a solo disease. Surprisingly, it did non take much clip for public wellness suppliers to come to the realisation that malignant neoplastic disease is a terrifying, hard, and a disease with many causes and beginnings that requires immediate full public consciousness and actions. Shortly, after this realisation, the conflict against malignant neoplastic disease became one of the precedences of the twenty-first century ; Ã¢â¬Å" a war to be fought on multiple foreparts against a diffuse enemy and for which bar was the most wise way to triumph Ã¢â¬ ( Hess et al. , 2005 p. 159 ) . In order to win and win t his battle against malignant neoplastic disease, the National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) needed to integrate the rules of wellness information sciences in guaranting that the populace is empowered through an environment that is supportive and which integrates information sciences, transforms scientific discipline, delivers safe and patient-oriented wellness attention, with accent on single control, in public wellness. To accomplish these ends, Hesse ( 2005 ) indicated that NCI connotations include the use of three assorted wellness information sciences applications: Ã¢â¬Å" applications in bioinformatics, applications in medical information sciences and applications in consumer information sciences Ã¢â¬ ( p. 159 ) . This information sciences would take the way of systematic engineering invention, enhances the handiness of an environment that supports protected and efficient health care bringing, and empowers persons to take charge of their personal wellness severally. Taking charge of one Ã¢â¬Ës wellness includes bar of diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease and direction of any disease in the event that such disease was non evitable. To maintain these applications on path, wellness attention decision makers must take a sociotechnical attack to execution. The new systems must be built into the wellness attention environment in such a manner that they support human capacities, provide failsafe backups in the face of cognitive and physical restrictions, and support uninterrupted quality betterment. In July 2001 the Institute of Medicine released Ã¢â¬Å" Traversing the Quality Chasm, Ã¢â¬ its landmark prescription for wellness attention in the twenty-first Century. The major subject of the study was far making: Ã¢â¬Å" Health attention today is characterized by more to cognize, more to pull off, more to watch, more to make, and more people involved in making it than at any clip in the state Ã¢â¬Ës history. Ã¢â¬ No one person can anticipate to hold on the complexness of modern medical scientific discipline, nor can any one person stay abreast of the tsunami of informations and findings that comprise effectual wellness attention over the life span of a typical patient ( IOM, 2001 ) . Changes must be made, writers of the study argued, to the really system in which wellness attention occurs to cover with the sheer volume of mounting medical information, and to guarantee that the right information is brought to bear at the right clip on every wellness determination made throu ghout an person Ã¢â¬Ës lifetime. The lone manner to maintain up with alterations and demands of the populace is through progresss in information engineering. At the really least, the wellness attention system has to be redesigned to do the same indispensable usage of information technology-through computerized records direction, electronic informations interchange, and safety systems-that are already standard in other industries ( UDDHHS, 2004 ; Daniel, 2006 ) . More critically, to win the wellness conflicts of the twenty-first century, the system will necessitate to do substantial springs frontward. It must turn to suit an information rich environment of wellness attention that is supportive of wellness and health in the twenty-first century. In this paper, the author will explicate how the battle against malignant neoplastic disease is conceptualized by research workers and practicians at the National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) , the establishment that is tasked by the US Federal Government to take research attempts against the disease. Then followed by explicating how the development of a co-ordinated public wellness information sciences substructure will be a necessary, enabling measure for transforming the research endeavor, bettering pattern, and enabling personal wellness decision-making. In 1971, with the transition of the Cancer Act, the U.S. Congress declared Ã¢â¬Å" war on malignant neoplastic disease Ã¢â¬ ( Congress, 1971 ) , and since so attempts have been to towards remedy. The scientific advancement made since that clip has been amazing, but what the biomedical community learned was merely how formidable and sophisticated the enemy was. What we now know to be malignant neoplastic disease is truly a household of 100 + diseases, each with parallel yet distinguishable aetiologic waies, and a deadly inclination to engender new malignances through an insidious procedure of metastasis. Rather than resemble the Ã¢â¬Å" Great War Ã¢â¬ against a individual enemy, the war on malignant neoplastic disease looks more like the twenty-first century Ã¢â¬Å" war on panic Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a drawn-out conflict that requires a high degree of intelligence and monitoring to debar menace wholly or observe and extinguish menace early earlier harm becomes widespread. Understanding the pathology of malignant neoplastic disease provides an enlightened position of where the Windowss of chance are for commanding the disease. For illustration through the attempts of public wellness run against the usage of baccy led to the first important decrease in deceases due to malignant neoplastic disease in the twentieth century ( Von Eschenbach, 2005 ) . Besides, malignant neoplastic disease showing has been credited with dramatically cut downing mortality from cervical malignant neoplastic disease and decreases in mortality are being achieved through early sensing of chest, prostate, and colorectal malignant neoplastic diseases ( National Academy of Sciences, 2012 ) .If testing helps the control of malignant neoplastic disease it is alluring to explicate a policy that would recommend for wide spectrum showing processs routinely for the bulk of the population. It does non take long, nevertheless, to calculate out that the disbursal of such an attack, non to ad vert the undue breaks from false positives for those non at hazard, would be prohibitory. Another nutrient for idea is, if so many malignant neoplastic diseases are evitable through primary and secondary bar schemes, and the function of the human genome is unlocking the secrets of more effectual showing trials, so why has malignant neoplastic disease eclipsed bosom disease as a figure 1 slayer of Americans aged 85 old ages and younger? One of the replies may be that our ability to bring forth informations may hold outstripped our ability to use and incorporate new cognition. Journalist David Schenk referred to this as Ã¢â¬Å" Data Smog, Ã¢â¬ a status that exists when excessively much natural information precipitates Ã¢â¬Å" palsy by analysis Ã¢â¬ among scientists, and excessively many intelligence narratives depicting the latest Ã¢â¬Å" scientific determination Ã¢â¬ leave consumers bewildered and bedraggled ( Shenk,1997 ) . The thought of public overload became evident by replies to the National Cancer Institute Ã¢â¬Ës ( NCI ) Health Information National Trends Survey ( HINTS ) in 2003. HINTS is a two-year, random digit dial telephone study designed to measure grownups Ã¢â¬Ë use of different communicating media and their resulting cognition, attitudes, and behaviours relevant to malignant neoplastic disease control ( Nelson et al. , 2004 ) . In the study respondents were asked on a one to five scale how much they agreed with the statement that Ã¢â¬Å" there are so many different recommendations it is difficult to cognize what to make to forestall malignant neoplastic disease. Ã¢â¬ About 75 % of the sample indicated they Ã¢â¬Å" strongly agreed Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" agreed Ã¢â¬ with the statement that there were excessively many recommendations to cognize what to make ( Hesse, et al. , 2005 ) . To accomplish advancement in malignant neoplastic disease bar, it is of import that healthcare forces maintain up with the many new engineerings, incorporating them into the crowded work flow of a patient centered medical pattern. Integration a nd application will be indispensable if malignant neoplastic disease research workers wish to travel invention into pattern and to hold an impact on the national malignant neoplastic disease load. The solution rests in tackling the power of health-related information sciences. The Gallic term Ã¢â¬Å" informatique Ã¢â¬ was coined in the early 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës to depict an emerging engineering that would let scientists to pass on informations via computing machine webs. Heavy investing in the 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës and 1970 Ã¢â¬Ës in the United States led to the development of a robust web protocol ( Transmission Control Protocol Ã¢â¬â Internet Protocol ) that would construct on the information sciences construct by enabling defence research workers and contractors to pass on informations with each other over widely distributed and loosely interconnected computing machine webs. Further investings in the U.S. during the 1980 Ã¢â¬Ës and 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës enabled the National Science Foundation to widen the benefits of information sciences substructures to basic scientific discipline research workers and to pedagogues. That period culminated in the development of the NSF high velocity anchor, a public substructure designed to enable high velocity transmittal of infor mations and messages across the US and to selected research labs internationally. Further force per unit area on the US Congress led to the formation of programs to enable a wide information sciences substructure for public usage, which led to a denationalization of a national information sciences substructure ( NII ) and an credence of TCP-IP as the criterion for inter-network connectivity. On November 15, 2001 the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( DHHS ) published a study by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics naming for the development of a National Health Information Infrastructure, or NHII ( National Committee on Health and Vital Statistics, 2001 ) . To spread out entree to the information, and to salvage clip and disbursal from reinventing the same computing machine resources across research labs, the NCI has invested in a common information sciences substructure caBIG ( for the malignant neoplastic disease Bio-Informatics Grid ) , this substructure will function as a common information platform through which take parting labs may portion protocols, metadata ( i.e. , informations about informations ) , contacts, computing machine applications, vocabularies, depository informations, and instruments which is regarded as collaboratory ( Buetow, 2005 ) . Another end of engineering is to enable a new epoch of scientific discipline in which research workers and clinicians, from different parts of the state and from entirely different subjects, can unite forces. Therefore, the engineerings must be able to back up an epoch of large-scale Ã¢â¬Å" squad scientific discipline Ã¢â¬ ( IOM, 2003 ) . An illustration is the Cancer Molecular Assessment Project, or caMAP. The primary end of the caMAP undertaking is to ease the designation of molecular marks for malignant neoplastic disease. This is achieved by utilizing genomic informations onto the web at the NCI. The information will so be combined with information on molecular tracts obtained from BioCarta, a functional categorization of cistrons. Connections to molecularly targeted curative agent information are made through the NCI Ã¢â¬Ës Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program. The concatenation of patterned advance in the function of public wellness information sciences for malignant neoplastic disease bar includes the grounds garnered from biomedical scientific discipline and direct nexus with wellness attention bringing system in seasonably, safe, and effectual ways. Unquestionably, information engineering must play a important function in conveying the right information, into the right relationship, at the right clip to take full advantage of Windowss of chance in malignant neoplastic disease attention. There are by and large four types of computing machine applications that have been developed over the past two decennaries that can ease the find to bringing procedure. They include: ( a ) interoperable and interrelated records direction systems, ( B ) bibliographic hunt and retrieval systems, ( degree Celsius ) determination support systems, and ( vitamin D ) biomedical imaging systems. The end of making a truly interoperable and interrelated electronic medical record system has been more elusive. In malignant neoplastic disease attention, the promise of developing portable electronic wellness record systems will enable new chances for intercession across the full malignant neoplastic disease attention continuum. Cancer patients are particularly at hazard as they transition from one wellness attention puting to another, and as they transfer attention from general practicians to medical oncologists. An interrelated medical record system, if executed right, will make a better occupati on at back uping these passages. The public-service corporation of bibliographic databases will enable doctors throughout the universe unparalleled entree to the medical literature. Future attempts will needfully concentrate on making newer and more efficient seeking algorithms to assist oncologists convey the best grounds to bear on every determination they make, irrespective of how rare the malignant neoplastic disease is. On-line information science tools, such as the Cancer Control Planet for public wellness decision makers will give determination shapers vetted entree to evidence-based plans as contained within the medical and public wellness literature. Another computing machine application is the Decision support systems ( DSS ) . Since the early 1970s, determination support systems ( DSS ) engineering and applications have evolved significantly. Many technological and organisational developments have exerted an impact on this development. DSS one time utilized more limited d atabase, mold, and user interface functionality, but technological inventions have enabled far more powerful DSS functionality. DSS one time supported single decision-makers, but subsequently DSS engineerings were applied to workgroups or squads, particularly practical squads. The coming of the Web has enabled inter-organizational determination support systems, and has given rise to legion new applications of bing engineering every bit good as many new determination support technologies themselves. Mobile tools, nomadic e-services, and wireless Internet protocols are taging the following major set of developments in DSS. In the early history of public wellness information sciences, the populace did non swear computing machines for determination devising. They were non willing to release personal control over decision-making as a consequence of the determination procedure non been clear to them. Computers will non be able to replace higher degrees of thought and judgement but has bee n able to execute some of the boring undertakings associated with information direction. Their true part is in supplying human decision-makers with better quality information so that they can do better determinations. To utilize Zuboff Ã¢â¬Ës footings, computing machines will non Ã¢â¬Å" automate ; Ã¢â¬ they will Ã¢â¬Å" informate Ã¢â¬ ( Zuboff, 1984 ) . As a consequence, it is critical for public suppliers to cognize that the best usage of engineerings is non to replace clinical judgement, but to augment it. Public wellness information sciences continues to play important function in health care and engineerings provide a assortment of chances to turn to public wellness challenges such as malignant neoplastic disease. Datas from the 2003 disposal of the Health Information National Trends Survey revealed that the public relied on the cyberspace as their first beginning of information on malignant neoplastic disease bar ( Hesse et al. , 2005 ) . This determination is consistent with on-line wellness information tendencies reported from other studies. In tracking the figure of Americans traveling online, the U.S. Census Bureau noted a gradual slope from Ã¢â¬Å" 22.2 % in 1997 to 42 % in 2000 and 51 % in 2001. By 2003, the HINTS information placed the figure of Americans online at 63.0 % ( 95 % CI, 61.7-64.3 ) Ã¢â¬ . Of those who report being online, Ã¢â¬Å" 63.7 % ( 95 % CI, 61.7-65.8 ) Ã¢â¬ reported holding looked for medical information for themselves or for others sometime in the old 12 months. Sing what sort of wellness information people search for online, Rice reported that Ã¢â¬Å" malignant neoplastic disease Ã¢â¬ was the 3rd most popular health-related hunt term on the Web after Ã¢â¬Å" depression Ã¢â¬ ( # 1 ) and Ã¢â¬Å" allergic reactions Ã¢â¬ ( # 2 ) ( Rice, 2001 ) . Each twenty-four hours the figure continues to increase and public wellness information sciences continues to hold consequence in malig nant neoplastic disease bar. This is an of import ground for Consumer Informatics which require multiple channels. To back up information seeking in complex environments, Marchionini ( 1995 ) , the National Cancer Institute ( NCI ) continues on the betterment of scientific guidelines and to the full equipped serviceability research lab to carry on research and rating. NCI was instrumental in piecing an grounds base for the design of wellness related Web sites. NCI has intensified in its attempts to better public wellness consciousness in the bar of malignant neoplastic disease through public wellness information sciences. For illustration, the diffusion of Personal Health Records online, allows patients to supervise their ain electronic medical information. This promotes a greater sense of self-advocacy among patients, thereby doing them more argus-eyed in supervising their ain wellness conditions and can go more proactive in modulating their ain wellness behaviours an of import par t of public wellness information sciences in malignant neoplastic disease bar. ( ? Reference ) . Besides, reminder systems embedded within the personal wellness record can motivate patients to see their doctors for everyday showing trials or can supply instructions for behaviour when research lab values exceed safe scopes. In kernel, the patient can go portion of the wellness attention squad, supervising his or her ain wellness in more informed ways. Greater support for self-care, both for persons and their health professionals is an of import facet of public wellness particularly as chronic diseases continue to lift. An addition in edification within on-line media is merely one aspect of a to the full supportive and healthy environment. Other media Ã¢â¬â newspapers, magazines, telecasting, wireless, and booklets will prevail as new communicating channels come online. In general, the new mix of media will look more disconnected and specialized than the early yearss of mass commun icating. The new mix will besides be more synergistic than the predating information environment and will be fueled by an implicit in convergence of engineerings. In the early yearss of the Internet wellness communicators thought of the World Wide Web as a concluding finish for wellness information searchers. The accent was making content to be browsed on screen in Hyper Text Markup Language ( HTML ) . Using the Web as a bringing mechanism, instead than a finish, could intend supplying Web surfboarders with downloadable, printer-friendly booklets that could easy be circulated to others. By back uping meeting engineerings, wellness information Web interior decorators could widen their public wellness range beyond the Digital Divide. Public wellness Informaticians must acknowledge that wellness attention environments are made up of people, tools, and conversations. Redesign attempts must maintain this in head if the attempts are to be successful ; new engineerings must be compatible with user properties and they must be supportive of work flow and communicating demands. Understanding and placing the audience is a cardinal point for presenting any public wellness intercession, it is indispensable to cognize the targeted audience, wellness literacy degree, readability degree, therefore the wellness communicating manner, format, and linguistic communication will be good received, accepted, and understood by that peculiar audience. Since every public wellness communicating has a intent and say to bring forth an result from the targeted audience, it is required that it will utilize the recognized tools that helps to actuate this audience to lend to the result effectual of communicating ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . As a consequ ence, Schiavo entreaties to public wellness professionals on this point and says that Ã¢â¬â it is of import to retrieve that public wellness communicating starts and ends with the audience ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . O'Carroll et Al. ( 2003 ) besides warns public wellness information sciences professionals and partisans and say that success of public wellness information sciences is non merely about computing machines and hardware but it is about the people who will utilize and implement these systems and webs because public wellness information sciences creates value. The attacks used by public wellness forces yielded and continues to bring forth positive result on malignant neoplastic disease bar. This shows that credence of a public wellness message depends on how it is presented ( Schiavo, 2007 ) . The first point to see when implementing a new engineering is to understand exhaustively the work environment into which the engineering will be integrated. Many Health IT undertakings fai l when deployed in existent universe scenes. These are scenes filled with conflicting work demands, clip restraints, and into which foisting a hard-to-use or error-prone computing machine system would bring mayhem. As the engineering of medical scientific discipline becomes more complex, the grade of hazard associated with utilizing the engineering additions. So excessively, the demand arises to guarantee that the engineerings are embedded within the environment of medical attention in a seamless, effectual, and safe manner. This exhortation was a nucleus subject in the Institute of Medicine Ã¢â¬Ës comrade studies to the medical community: Ã¢â¬Å" To Err is Human and Traversing the Quality Chasm Ã¢â¬ ( Institute of Medicine, 2000 ) . An expressed subject of the book was that mistakes do non stand for failures of persons, but failures of the wellness attention system and the mode in which attention is delivered. To better bringing techniques, mistakes must be addressed from a sy stemic and a human factors perspective. In working with human capacities, instead than against them, systems applied scientists must concentrate on constructing the back-ups and failsafe processs into their engineerings that allow worlds to run within natural tolerances for cognitive capacity and physical restrictions. Because discrepancies are natural, the system must besides be self-correcting. It should be infused with informations supervising systems that can inform uninterrupted quality betterment, and it should do careful usage of intelligent agents to inform -not take away from Ã¢â¬â human judgement and decision-making. Another country in which systems applied scientists and wellness attention forces are concentrating on in order to better the function of wellness information sciences in the bar of chronic diseases for illustration malignant neoplastic disease is in supplying degrees of support that go beyond individual minutess which Zuboff and Maxmin ( 2002 ) referred to as the construct of supplying Ã¢â¬Å" deep support Ã¢â¬ Supplying deep support entails trust-filled relationship between wellness attention system and their client. In the Web economic system, developers have frequently made the unforesightful error of seeking to pull out concern value from each and every dealing through the add-on of Ã¢â¬Å" start up ads Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ( Zuboff & A ; Maxmin, 2002 ) into the user Ã¢â¬Ës attending, frequently while the clients were seeking to happen critical information. When a end directed visitant comes to a Web site looking for of import wellness information, the last thing they want is to be bombarded with a bombardment of targeted advertizements or to pick up on a wellness message that is uncomplete, disconnected, or filled with uninterpretable words. Where information sciences systems need to travel following is to associate all facets of a patient Ã¢â¬Ës information environment together to organize an unbroken cradle of Ã¢â¬Å" deep support Ã¢â¬ over clip. The Institute of Medicine referred to this end as making a Ã¢â¬Å" healing relationship Ã¢â¬ with the wellness attention system, in which some facet of a coordinated attention environment can be made available in patient-centric ways 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 7 yearss a hebdomad. It is the long-run support facet of wellness attention bringing coordinated across people and systems that will turn the tide on malignant neoplastic disease. As promotion in health care continues through information sciences, links must be drawn to the single patient, to be certain that the patient is supported over a life-time of wellness information decision-making. Making an environment that is every bit supportive of all members of the population is critical. Serviceability interior decorators refer to this construct as Universal Design ( Deering, 2002 ) . Universal Design construct allows characteristics in the environment that will let for maximal inclusion across changing degrees of physical ability and across scopes of socioeconomic strata in the community. For illustration, Curb cuts which are indentures built into pavements that give people in wheelchairs easy entree to the food market shops, office edifices, and promenades and which are besides utile to people who are physically able, as they can be used as waies for shopping carts, babe saunterers, bags on Ã¢â¬Å" wheelies, Ã¢â¬ and bikes. The characteristic is a cosmopolitan design, since it benefits everyone. This same construct is an illustration of public wellness function in the betterment of wellness via information sciences ( Shneiderman, 1998 ) because attempts are made to construct kerb cuts into comput ing machines. An illustration is the ability to set ocular position or Ã¢â¬Å" rapid climb Ã¢â¬ in graphical user interfaces. Size accommodations do it easy for people with differing degrees of ocular sharp-sightedness to set the size of objects on the screen ( say words or Numberss ) for easiness of sing. Another manner of nearing cosmopolitan design is to make systems that adapt easy to differing degrees of experience or proficient edification ( Shneiderman, 1998 ) Staging a web site so that information of cosmopolitan involvement is contained within the first few beds, while supplying well-marked waies to the more sophisticated proficient information is of import for the bar of chronic diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease. Attention to rules of cosmopolitan design in malignant neoplastic disease attention will make an intelligent wellness attention environment that, like a well-marked main road, will take all users down the route to malignant neoplastic disease free lives. The findings of the function of public wellness information sciences in malignant neoplastic disease bar and control provide possible waies for concentrating preventative intercessions. More research is needed to better understand how wellness information can be used more widely and efficaciously. One country of research could analyze how organisations obtain and utilize this information ; what value users derive from the information ; which types of flexible tools users would happen most utile ; and preparation and other capacity demands needed to promote the effectual usage of the information. It is believed that the new and evolving subject of public wellness information sciences is the key to consistently and scientifically worki ng this chance to the benefit of the populace Ã¢â¬Ës wellness. This demand is an chance and challenge for me as a public wellness information sciences pupil to carry on farther research that will turn to public wellness information sciences issues with cognition gained from this class and plan. To reason, it has been over three decennaries since Congress foremost declared war on malignant neoplastic disease and public wellness attempts in anti-smoking runs has decreased the rate of lung malignant neoplastic disease in work forces, with similar lessenings in adult females non far behind. Successful usage of early sensing plans in chest and cervical malignant neoplastic disease, prostate malignant neoplastic disease, and colorectal malignant neoplastic disease have cut back rates of mortality on each of those foreparts. Coincidentally, the new war on malignant neoplastic disease is being fought with engineering ; information sciences calculating. To reason, there is a new mentality to malignant neoplastic disease bar because public wellness information sciences is communicated in a manner that creates value in the mark population. The NCI continues to make a hereafter in which persons are empowered with the information and tools they need to take cancer-free lives and one in which decease and enduring from malignant neoplastic disease will be nonexistent through public wellness information sciences, bioinformatics, medical information sciences, and consumer information sciences. Regardless of these and such hurdlings, Centers for Diseases Control has shown pronounced advancement ( CDC 2011a-b, CDC, 2010 & A ; O'Carroll, 2003 ) in the usage and application of engineering to public wellness in public wellness information sciences both at federal and local degrees. Harmonizing to CD Ã¢â¬Ës Public Health Information Network ( PHIN ) , the end is besides to make populations at planetary degree.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Social network essay Social networking can be a useful tool for keeping in touch with friends and family but when it is used to substitute it for actual face to face contact it can be a dangerous thing. You can't lie; social networking is a very large part of our lives. In September 2011 Facebook registered 800 million users. Social networking can have good effects on people and help them out but it can be used inappropriately and can have very disastrous effects on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ friends that you want s lives.Social networking may have some cons but if used properly it can be a very useful device. When used properly it can help you stay in touch with people you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t normally be able to like friends or family overseas. Instead of having to call or write a letter you can just talk over the internet. It may not only be family or friends that you want to talk to, there might be someone that you like but donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the confidence to talk to them. You can build up your c onfidence over the internet and not worry about stumbling over your words.One of the arguments that people who are against social networking is that it can reduce face to face contact but if you use it well then It can actually increase it. You can organise things very easily compared to other ways like over the phone. Things like Facebook can be very helpful if used right but that can be the problem. People may feel they are being social but online interaction is no substitute for face to face contact. Ã¢â¬Å"Facebook is a tool. I compare it to a car: you can drive to isolate yourself from others or you can drive to meet people.If you use Facebook to increase face-to-face contact, it increases social capital. Ã¢â¬ It can help people but only if you do the right thing. This can be a really bad thing about social networking, it can promote loneliness. People will feel as though they are being really social but really they are becoming lonelier. People will feels as though no one r eally knows who they are and what they are really like. It can make people even worse when they see a new photo album or post saying Ã¢â¬Å"best day evaÃ¢â¬ tagged with some friends. That can make people feel left out and not part of a group.It can make people jealous of others and why they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get invited. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always accidental when people get hurt though. Social networking can be good if it is used correctly but the problem is a lot of people don't. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t always realise that posting something when you ten or fifteen can come back to hurt you when you are twenty-five. You could do something or have photos of you on Facebook when you were younger and then you are going for a job and they find it you could end up missing the job just because of that. It can give kids a much easier way to bully their peers.In the schoolyard you can have teachers around to stop it but over the internet there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t someone there to stop it. You do have to be careful about who you are talking to because they might not always be who you think. You shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t add people who you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know because you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who they are and what kind of person they are. Social networking can be a good thing but it must be used correctly. Social networking is a good thing but it must be used correctly or else it becomes a very dangerous place for everyone. It can be a very useful and important device but it may be us who end up destroying it.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Mercantilism essays Mercantilism is an economic theory where a nation's strength comes from building up gold supplies and expanding its trade. Britain formed the American colonies so that they could increase their gold stores. They wanted raw supplies to make into products to sell and make money. They wanted America to pay taxes so that Britain could make money. America used the theory in that they thought they ought to, in order to be strong expand their trade beyond Britain. Countries like Belgium, and France wanted to also increase their trade, and expand it to trading with America. They also wanted to increase their gold stores by trading with America. Britain however did not want America to trade with France and Belgium and the Netherlands because they wanted to increase their gold stores, so they needed a monopoly over American trade. So there was tension between Britain and its American colonies. One of the first efforts made by Britain to control the American colonies was the Acts of Trade and Navigation. What these acts did was limited American trade to basically just Britain. These Acts were in place between 1650-1660 and they were there to ensure that the mercantile system that existed stayed. It was mainly to prevent the Frenchmen and Dutch from receiving American goods. The acts limited American shipping to be via Britain. The British had to receive all American goods and them their merchants would sell the goods to other countries, but America could not. Any goods that were to be imported to the colonies had to be passed through British middlemen, where a tax was added so that Britain would profit. America was also forbidden to produce goods or grow crops for profit. If they were to do that then they would be competing with British industries. The colonies were supposed to also buy more than they sold, so that their currency was drained, but all to Britain. Before 1663, when the Acts of Trade and Navigation were not enforced the co...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Financial Crisis Impacts on the Employees' Motivational Aspects - Research Paper Example Based on the responses of these employees, who belonged to different levels in the two organizations, the research concluded that there was indeed a lowered morale and motivation during the crisis. The reason for this was lack of resources and tools available to perform work at optimum levels, lack of incentives and motivators, lack of managerial support and fear and insecurity.The research also found that the managers can help alleviate the situation by taking a more dynamic role, making themselves available to the employees, setting clear targets, giving clear directions and guidance for achieving targets, and by showing their support and commitment to the employees. The managers can encourage employees, even when there are no external motivators, by simply showing their concern and by being honest and open with them.The research, therefore, concluded with a list of these recommendations that the organizations can follow in order to keep their employees motivated even during the cr isis.The economic and financial crisis of 2008/9 led to massive changes in the understanding of how business and organizations needed to be run. While there were very drastic implications for all, like job losses, pay cuts and loss of benefits and incentives, there were also several lessons that were learned about people management and work culture. Though the crisis may well have receded, there is widespread unemployment and loss of investor confidence that is dampening any prospects of growth. Employees have been seeing a downturn in their prospects due to non-availability of alternative jobs as well as due to lack of interests that their organization may be showing in retaining them.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Collective Bargaining Process in P-12 Education - Research Paper Example Significant Changes in Education Law Section 3012-c The revamp of the old law carried with it major changes in the evaluation process of teachers and principals, known as the new and improved Annual Professional Performance Review (APPR) system for teachers and principals. Ã¢â¬Å"The new APPR system applies only to evaluations of teachers in the common branch subjects or English Language Arts, and Math in grades four through eight, as well as building principals for the school year 2011-2012. The new APPR system will apply to all teachers and principals effective in the 2012-2013 school years. The APPR system requires teacher and principal evaluations to result in a single composite score made up of the several componentsÃ¢â¬ (New York Labor and Employment). The composite score shall be the basis for the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion, retention, tenure, termination, and will entitle the teacher to additional compensation. The composite score shall be divided into the following criter ia: The first 40% percent shall be based on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement and the other 60% shall comprise of the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s overall effectiveness. Modification of the Existing Provisions of Collective Bargaining Agreement Based on the labor relations standpoint, the requirement of a negotiated appeals process is one of the more contentious aspects of the new law. The appeals process by the way, is developed locally, wherein the teacher or principal shall have the right to question the basis of the evaluation. The factors taken in deriving at such result must be compliant to specific standards and guidelines for reviews and implementation of a Ã¢â¬Å"Teacher Improvement PlansÃ¢â¬ (TIP) and the Ã¢â¬Å"Principal Improvement PlansÃ¢â¬ (PIP). This method will be used for those teachers and... It aims to discuss the direct relationship of the new law to the concurrent provisions contained in the previous collective bargaining agreements. Due to the enactment of the new law, it mandated that all collective bargaining agreements entered by teachers and building principals after July 1, 2010 must be harmonize and complement with provisions of the new law. This report stresses that the new law does not require the school district, BOCES, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ representative union to indicate the references used in the newly incorporated provisions in the successor collective bargaining agreements. Strict observance must be complied as regard to the consistencies with the provisions of the new Education Law. This paper makes a conclusion that the enactment of the new law redounds to the benefit of the school district, BOCES, teachers and principals because they are given equal opportunities to improve their existing conditions and opens doors for more better opportunities which they can enjoy in the future. In the case of the students, they will be ensured of quality education as their teachers are required to attain a high level of effectiveness among their students. According to Tom Loveless, Ã¢â¬Å"what is certain however is that the scope of bargaining, although previously restricted in many states with regard to issues of wages, hours and working conditions, has in practice greatly expanded beyond those formal limitsÃ¢â¬ .
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Assignment of Managing Organisation - Essay Example A series of facts can contribute to above outcome: a) the plan attempted has not been appropriately designed Ã¢â¬â in terms of the resources available for its realization, b) the reaction of employees Ã¢â¬â internal organizational environment Ã¢â¬â towards the specific plan has not been the one expected; the resistance developed has led to the cancellation of the plan or to the delay in the completion of one or more of its phases, c) the conditions in the organizational environment have changed at such level Ã¢â¬â referring to the period between the beginning of the planning process and the beginning of the implementation process Ã¢â¬â that the development of the plan became non-feasible or the value of the plan for the increase of the organizational performance has been eliminated. Current paper focuses on a particular aspect of the strategic management: the cross-cultural management; reference is made especially to the multi-national firms of the tourism and hospital ity industry. The cross-cultural management practices initiated by the managers of these firms are presented and evaluated. It is concluded that even if a range of such practices are available to the managers of these firms, still problems exist in the successful implementation of the relevant projects across these organizations. It has been proved that the above problem is mostly related with the lack of consistency of these strategies across the various departments of these organizations; moreover, failures have been identified in the service delivery to customers from different cultural backgrounds. These issues are analytically discussed below by referring to appropriate literature; the findings of empirical studies, where available, have been also employed in order to highlight the challenges of cross Ã¢â¬â cultural management in the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide. 2. Cross-cultural management in modern organizations 2.1. Cross-cultural management Ã¢â¬â descri ption, framework Culture may have different forms within different frameworks or using different criteria: for instance the national culture is differentiated from organizational culture; however, it has been proved that the former can influence the latter (Browaeys et al 2008, 20). The above view can be verified by referring to the study of Hofstede who emphasized on the fact that Ã¢â¬Ëmanagement can be affected by differences between cultural groupingsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Browaeys et al 2008, 21); the above researchers studied the performance of the strategies of IBM in markets worldwide Ã¢â¬â the performance of the firm in 64 countries was reviewed. It was proved that differences existed in the behaviour/ performance of employees in various organizational activities under the influence of the national culture - involved in each case (Browaeys et al 2008, 21). From a different point of view, Adler et al. (2008) noted that, in the context of international market, the understanding by glo bal firms of the national culture is important because of the following reason: being aware of the culture of a foreign country multi-nationals are able to make the necessary adjustments to their existing strategies so that the latter are implemented successfully in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s branch in the particular country (Adler et al. 2008, 13). In this way, the culture of a country is closely related to the strategies used by the organizations operating across the specific country. In order to understand the challenges for the cross-cultural mana
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Toxicology - Essay Example gy disciplines, which relate well to occupational health and safety as they protect the staff from toxicity exposure at their work places (Greim, & Snyder, 2008). Clinical toxicology dwells on the effects of drugs as well as other chemicals in human beings. Every human being is exposed to chemicals and drugs at least once in their lives and it is usually accompanies with effects. This discipline tries to analyze the relationship between the doses of drugs and the effects they cause on people. Usually, a clinical toxicologist is in charge of this sector and usually aims at treating people who have faced such exposures. The clinical toxicologist is present in clinical settings to handle such incidents. This way, occupation health and safety is enhanced because the clinical toxicologist will first observe the symptoms and provide a treatment plan as well as advising on how one can cope with some adverse effects. Industries are known for their manufacturing and processing procedures. The goods produced are of a wide variety and some are consumables. This discipline of toxicology aims at ensuring that the products a company produces are safe hence do not pose a risk to consumers as well as employees (Kacew, & Lee, 2013). This discipline relates to occupational health and safety since it ensures that laboratory tests are conducted to ensure that the components used in manufacturing the products do not have negative side effects. This is necessary since the employees are constantly in contact with the raw materials during processing and even the final products as they conduct sales to the consumers. This puts them at risk and a company should therefore have industrial toxicologists that will ensure that the wide range of products is safe and effective. Forensic toxicology is a discipline of toxicology, which deals with gathering and providing information to the authorities following the event of drugs and poison exposure (Kacew & Lee, 2013). Forensic toxicologists
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Using Renewable Energy In Our Daily Lives Environmental Sciences Essay We all are concerned about our future with regard to the way we generate energy and power. Renewable energy is the process by which we use the radiant energy from the sun, wind, and hydropower etc. Unfortunately we are not using renewable energy in most cases and the methods by which we currently getting our raw materials for power and energy are simultaneously destroying our planet and depleting supplies of natural resources. The damages we have caused might take generations to reverse. Many of us who care wants to do something by raising their voice as we are on a threshold of change. Renewable energy resources are not only our way out of an environmental disaster; they could solve some of our economic woes. Many countries are embracing renewable energy and it has benefited n several ways. These benefits include saving consumers money and reducing unemployment. This is not a luxury that we pursue when the cost of gasoline goes up. Now is the time to convert our mode of transportation to clean electricity that we get from renewable sources. This is a necessity that is going to save the lives of future generations. We can survive the problems which we have created in order to power our world. The climate is changing and we have entire species of animals that are now extinct due to pollution. Lets look at the maximum possibilities as we are in the midst of a crisis therefore we must act according to what will benefit our generations. Aim Finding the main reasons for not using renewable energy in our daily lives. Objectives Literature Review Brief History Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, all energy used was renewable, with the primary sources being human labor, animal power in the form of oxen, mules, and horses, water power for mill power, wind for grinding grain, and firewood. A graph of energy use in the United States up until 1900 shows oil and natural gas with about the same importance in 1900 as wind and solar played in 2010. By 1873, concerns of running out of coal prompted experiments with using solar energy.Ã Development of solar engines continued until the outbreak of World War I. The eventual importance of solar energy, though, was recognized in a 1911 Scientific American article: in the far distant future, natural fuels having been exhausted [solar power] will remain as the only means of existence of the human race. In the 1970s environmentalists promoted the development of alternative energy both as a replacement for the eventual depletion of oil, as well as for an escape from dependence on oil, and the first wind turbines appeared. Solar had always been used for heating and cooling, but solar panels were too costly to build solar farms until 1980.Ã The theory of peak oil was published in 1956. By 2008 renewable energy had ceased being an alternative, and more capacity of renewable energy was added than other sources in both the United States and in Europe. Renewable energy is becoming more and more prevalent around the world, but it is still not the dominant energy resource.Ã Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Renewable Energy as a replacement for Conventional Fuel Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas:Ã electricity generation,Ã hot water/space heating,Ã motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services: Power generation. Renewable energy provides 19% of electricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas: for example, 14% in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40% in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20% in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100%), Norway (98%), Brazil (86%), Austria (62%), New Zealand (65%), and Sweden (54%). Heating.Ã Solar hot waterÃ makes an important contribution toÃ renewable heatÃ in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50-60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installedÃ solar water heatingÃ systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly. Transport fuels. RenewableÃ biofuelsÃ have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power, requiring utilities to use more renewable energy (even if this increases the cost), and providing tax incentives to encourage the development and use of such technologies. There is substantial optimism that renewable energy investments will pay off economically in the long term. Primary Source of Renewable Energy With so much dependency placed upon our natural resources to produce our much needed energy, scientists have been evaluating and producing renewable energy as an alternative to traditional energy sources.Ã Renewable energy is energy that can be reproduced in a short period of time.Ã The most prevalent forms of renewable energy are solar, wind, biomass, hydro power, geothermal and biofuels. http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTkYfRchpvKxiBs2AOvwdSSJzKy36CT7E2JMhOnxdD18HgVG7uyfw Wind An abundant source of renewable energy, wind power is used as a means of generating electricity.Ã Wind turbinesÃ are capable of harnessing the power derived from the wind, converting kinetic energy into mechanical energy. A source of clean, green renewable energy, favourable climate conditions in Europe means wind energy is a highly viable method for electricity generation. And none more so than in the UK, with 40% of all wind energy in Europe blowing over the country. Solar In one form or another, solar power has been around for thousands of years. As a renewable source of free, green energy, technology has found a way of harnessing the suns energy via solar panels which are used either to generate electricity (solar photovoltaics) or to produce heat to warm water (solar thermal). A popular choice in a growing renewable energy market, solar technology doesnt generate greenhouse cases and is environmentally friendly. Biomass Biomass energy is produced from organic materials such as plants and animals, but the energy that is produced in this fashion is originally provided by the sun. Ã For example, plants absorb the suns energy through a process called photosynthesizes.Ã This energy is then passed on through the organism that eats the plant, creating biomass energy.Ã The most common forms used to generate biomass energy are wood, crops, manure and some rubbish. When these substances are burned, they give off energy as heat.Ã For example, if you have aÃ wood fuelled heating, you are generating renewable biomass energy.Ã This is not the only method of generating biomass energy; you can also create biomass energy by converting these substances into methane gases, ethanol and biodiesel fuels which can be translated more easily into our current methods of energy use. Geothermal Geothermal energy comes from the original Greek word Geo which means sun. Geothermal energy is derived from the heat that is given off by the Earth.Ã For example, steam energy or hot water that is generated by the Earth can be used to generate energy.Ã It is considered to be a renewable source of energy as the water in the Earth is replenished by regular rainfall and the heat used is regularly produced by the planet. Hydro Power Hydro energy is derived from the movement of water.Ã One form ofÃ hydro powerÃ is generated through the movement of water through turbines, such as water running through turbines in a Dam.Ã Hydro power is considered a renewable energy source as the water is continuously cycled back through the plant or into nature. Biofuels Biofuels are a form of renewable energy derived from burning plant or animal substances, otherwise called combustion. One of the challenges to biofuels has been that it is not easily transferred into a liquid form which is the primary method used to fuel most cars and homes. Two of the most common strategies that are seed to produce biofuels includes: growing crops to produce ethanol and growing plants that produce biofuel oils. While these methods are effective sources of renewable energy, they are challenging to produce and maintain on a large scale. The basic feature of renewable energy is that it has the capacity to be regenerated and, as such, is virtually inexhaustible, besides being environmentally friendly. These are the two major properties that distinguish it from traditional energy sources. In recent years, these two features have pushed renewable energies to the forefront since, if current fossil fuel consumption rates are maintained, they would only be able to meet our energy needs for a few more decades before running out. The damage to the environment, on the other hand, caused by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting climate changes, force us to consider alternative energy sources if we want to preserve the planet and guarantee the well-being of future generations. Advantages The advantages of renewable energy over traditional energy sources are many and are receiving ever greater recognition. Technological progress in recent years has contributed to making renewable energy ever cheaper and efficient in generating electricity. The main advantages of renewable energies are: They are inexhaustible, whereas fossil fuels are limited. They have less of an environmental impact than fossil fuel energy sources (coal, oil and gas), since they do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. They are less of a risk than nuclear energy. They provide energy independence to a country, given that their use does not depend on the import of fossil fuels (which only exist in certain regions of the world). They allow a country to develop certain areas within its borders. Disadvantages It is easy to recognise the environmental advantages of utilising the alternative and renewable forms of energy but we must also be aware of the disadvantages. One disadvantage with renewable energy is that it is difficult to generate the quantities of electricity that are as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators. This may mean that we need to reduce the amount of energy we use or simply build more energy facilities. It also indicates that the best solution to our energy problems may be to have a balance of many different power sources. Another disadvantage of renewable energy sources is the reliability of supply. Renewable energy often relies on the weather for its source of power. Hydro generators need rain to fill dams to supply flowing water. Wind turbines need wind to turn the blades, and solar collectors need clear skies and sunshine to collect heat and make electricity. When these resources are unavailable so is the capacity to make energy from them. This can be unpredictable and inconsistent. The current cost of renewable energy technology is also far in excess of traditional fossil fuel generation. This is because it is a new technology and as such has extremely large capital cost. Research Methodology Findings and Results Reasons of not Using Renewable energy in Daily Lives Ã Time and time again, we have to explain to them why their reasoning is unfounded but still we find the same excuses wherever we go. Ã So we thought wed take a little time to dispel the four most common excuses for not utilizing solar power. Its Too Expensive Everyone seems to know that federal and state governments have significant financial incentives in place to help promote the adoption of solar power. Ã Even after these incentives, the average residential solar system costs between $10,000 and $30,000 and for most people, this represents a major capital investment. Ã As a result, most people stop there and say, I cant afford it. Ã What they dont know is that there are a number of financing options available to help ease the cost of solar. Ã For example, a number of solar installers offerÃ financing programsÃ , similar to small loan or mortgage, where there is little to no up front cost and finance the balance of the purchase price through a loan. Ã As a result, the homeowner does not have to come up with cash upfront but can amortize the cost of the solar system over time. Ã Whats great is that when you factor in a your reduced utility bill from solar and the amortization cost of the panels, this amount is most likely still less than your electric bill without solar power. Ã So you save immediately and that savings grows over time as electricity rates increase. There are also programs where you canÃ lease the panelsÃ Ã for little to no up front costs and you pay a small, manageable monthly fee over the term of the lease. Ã Again, the savings on your electric bill from the solar panels plus this leasing fee is still likely to be less than your current electric bill without solar. Ã There is also a mechanism called aÃ power purchase agreementÃ , which is a great option for larger projects, where the solar installer installs and owns the panels on the roof of your home/building but provides you electricity and simply charges you a flat fee for that electricity over the life of the agreement (typically 15-20 years). Ã That way you are guaranteed a set rate of electricity over a long period of time (protecting you from annual rises in electricity rates) and there is no up front cost to you. The moral of the story is that there are a lot of options for people to pay for solar panels. Gone are the days where you have to come up with all the money for solar panels up front. There are simply more ways than ever to finance and make the cost of solar work out beneficially for residential and commercial consumers alike. Solar Wont Work in cold climate Another really bad excuse. The average temperature in a climate region does not have an effect on solar panels. Ã In fact, solar panels are actually slightly more efficient at producing electricity in cold temperatures. The critical factor for solar panels is a concept called solar isolation which is the amount of sunlight that the solar cells receive. Obviously, the more the better so even if you live in a colder climate that is further north and receive ample amounts of sunlight, solar should work just fine for you. (If you want to learn more about how solar panels work, you can clickÃ hereÃ .) Remember, Germany, is which is farther north than just about any state in the U.S., is the world leader in solar photovoltaic energy with over 9,000 Megawatts. Ã Thats almost enough to cover the roofs of 2 million U.S. houses! Ã So dont worry if you live in a cold climate, just make sure that you receive plenty of sunshine. No Power if its cloudy A reasonable concern, but again, not a good reason to avoid solar power. Ã As stated above, its not temperature that affects the performance of solar panels, rather it is the amount sunlight received. Ã And even in the sunniest of locations, there are going to be days where there is cloud cover or rain (not to mentioned nightfall) and your solar panels performance may be compromised. Ã Not to worryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦you will not be left in the dark. Residential and commercial solar panels these days are almost always connected to the utility gridÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦it is called a grid-tie. Ã So, while your solar panels are exposed to the sun, the electricity they produce powers your house or building. Ã But when it is cloudy or nightfall, you will still be able to draw power for your home or building because you remain connected to the electrical grid. Another cool concept is what is called net metering. Ã In states that allow net metering, if your solar panels produce more electricity in a day than you are consuming, that extra electricity is fed back into the electric grid and can actually spin your electric meter backward. Ã As a result, at the end of the month, the electric company will take into account the electricity that you fed back in to the grid through your solar power system and you will only pay for the net amount of electricity that you consume. People do not know Where to Start Getting Solar The worst excuse of them all! Ã First of all, there is a tons of information on the Internet related to solar, so for starters you can get educated that way. However, we understand that there may be so much information that you are overwhelmed. Never fear, sites likeMyEnergySolution.comÃ Ã take the mystery out of the solar process.Ã MyEnergySolution.comÃ contains all the information you need to know about how solar works, what to expect and even ideas to help finance your solar power system. With sites likeÃ MyEnergySolution.comÃ , there is no excuse not to understand the key elements of going solar. But what about getting a solar installer? Ã How do I know who to pick? Ã Another great question. Ã You can obviously talk to friends who have installed solar power systems in their homes and ask for a reference. Ã But if you dont have references, solar energy matching services can also take much of the guess work out of selecting a solar installer. Ã There are several free matching services that connect you with pre-selected and highly reputable solar installers based. Ã The process is simple: you provide basic information on your location and project type and within minutes or up to 1-2 business days the qualified solar installers will contact you to bid on your project. Ã These services have saved homeowners time and the headache of dealing with poor quality installers. Ã For example, seeÃ www.solar-energy-installers.comÃ . Critical Evaluation Conclusion and Recommendation We know that people have other reasons for not going solar and that is fine. Ã Choosing solar is a personal/business decision that can only be made by you. However too often, we have seen a number of friends and business associates avoid solar power based on the excuses above yet solar power could have been so value-added to their home or commercial project. Ã Our goal here is to hopefully de-bunk the biggest excuses that we have seen and help show that there are answers and solutions out there for your concerns.Ã